K.S.A. Chapter 8 Article 15

Uniform Act Regulating Traffic

Rules of the Road

Current through end of 2016 legislative session

8-1501     Application of sections in article 15.

8-1503     Required obedience to lawful order of police officer or fireman; misdemeanor.

8-1504     Rights and duties of person riding animal or driving animal-drawn vehicle.

8-1505     Application of traffic laws to highway construction or maintenance operations.

8-1506     Authorized emergency vehicles; rights, duties and liability of drivers thereof.

8-1507     Official traffic-control devices; required obedience; placement; presumptions.

8-1508     Traffic-control signal legend.

8-1509     Pedestrian control signals.

8-1510     Flashing traffic signals.

8-1511     Lane-direction-control signals.

8-1512     Placement, maintenance or display of unauthorized signs, signals, markings or devices.

8-1513     Interference with official traffic-control devices or railroad signs or signals; misdemeanor.

8-1514     Driving on right side of roadway required; exceptions.

8-1515     Overtaking and passing; vehicles proceeding in opposite directions.

8-1516     Same; vehicles proceeding in same direction.

8-1517     Same; when passing on the right permitted.

8-1518     Same; limitations on passing on the left.

8-1519     Driving on left side of roadway prohibited; exceptions.

8-1520     No-passing zones; designation by secretary of transportation or local authorities; duties of drivers.

8-1520a   Unlawful passing of stopped emergency vehicle

8-1521     One-way highways, roadways or traffic lanes; designation by secretary of transportation or local authorities; duties of drivers; rotary traffic islands.

8-1522     Driving on roadways laned for traffic.

8-1523     Following another vehicle too closely.

8-1524     Driving limitations on divided highways and controlled-access highways; certain turns prohibited; parking prohibited, when.

8-1525     Regulation and restrictions on use of controlled-access highways and facilities; misdemeanor.

8-1526     Right-of-way; approaching or entering intersection.

8-1527     Same; turning left.

8-1528     Stop signs and yield signs; duties of drivers.

8-1529     Vehicle entering or crossing roadway.

8-1530     Duty of driver upon approach of authorized emergency vehicle.

8-1531     Highway construction or maintenance operations; duty of driver.

8-1531a   Road construction zone, failing to comply with traffic regulations in.

8-1532     Pedestrians; obedience to official traffic-control devices required.

8-1533     Same; right-of-way at crosswalks; interference with vehicular traffic; duties of drivers.

8-1534     Same; crossing roadway at location other than crosswalk.

8-1535     Same; drivers to exercise due care.

8-1536     Same; movement in crosswalk.

8-1537     Same; use of roadways.

8-1538     Soliciting rides, business or contributions; exception.

8-1539     Driving through safety zone prohibited.

8-1540     Pedestrians' right-of-way on sidewalks.

8-1541     Pedestrians must yield right-of-way to authorized emergency vehicle.

8-1542     Blind pedestrian's right-of-way.

8-1543     Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or drugs; misdemeanor.

8-1544     Obedience of pedestrian to bridge and railroad signals required.

8-1545     Required position and method of turning vehicles.

8-1546     Limitations on 'U' turns.

8-1547     Starting parked vehicle.

8-1548     Turning movements and required signals.

8-1549     Methods of giving notice of intention to turn.

8-1550     Same; hand and arm signals.

8-1551     Obedience to signal indicating approach of train.

8-1552     Designation of dangerous railroad grade crossings; vehicles required to stop, when.

8-1553     Certain vehicles required to stop at railroad grade crossings; exceptions.

8-1554     Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings; notice to railroad's station agent.

8-1555     Vehicle emerging from alley, building, private road or dirveway.

8-1556     Overtaking and passing school bus; actuation of visual signals by driver of bus, when; required school bus markings.

8-1556a   Passing church and day care program buses; use of signals.

8-1557     Basic rule governing speed of vehicles.

8-1558     Maximum speed limits.

8-1559     Alteration of maximum speed limits; establishing speed limits in road construction zones; powers of secretary of transportation.

8-1560     Alteration of maximum speed limits; powers of local authorities, limitations and restrictions; establishing speed limits in road construction zones.

8-1560a   Wabaunsee county improvement district speed limits; how fixed; local authority status.

8-1560b   Maximum and minimum speed limits fixed by Kansas turnpike authority.

8-1560c   Certain violations of maximum speed limits not construed as moving traffic violations.

8-1560d  Certain violations of maximum speed limits not to be considered for liability insurance.

8-1560e   Rural school zone speed limits.

8-1561     Minimum speed regulation.

8-1562     Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles.

8-1563     Special speed limitations applicable to certain vehicles and portions of highways; powers of secretary and local authorities; violations, evidence of safe speed.

8-1564     Violations of speed limits; requirements for complaint, summons and notice to appear; effect of maximum speed limits in civil action.

8-1565     Racing on highways; misdemeanor.

8-1566     Reckless driving, penalties.

8-1567     Driving under influence of alcohol or drugs; blood alcohol concentration; penalties.

8-1567a   Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs by any person less than 21 years of age; blood alcohol concentration; penalties.

8-1568     Fleeing or attempting to elude a police officer; penalties.

8-1569     Stopping, standing or parking outside of business or residence district.

8-1570     Authority of police officer to remove vehicle in violation of 8-1569 from highway.

8-1571     Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified places.

8-1572     Additional parking regulations; powers of secretary and local authorities.

8-1573     Unattended motor vehicle.

8-1574     Limitations on backing vehicle.

8-1575     Driving upon sidewalk.

8-1576     Driving vehicle prohibited when driver's view or driving mechanism obstructed.

8-1577     Opening and closing vehicle doors.

8-1578     Riding in house trailer or mobile or manufactured home prohibited.

8-1578a   Riding on vehicle prohibited, when; exceptions.

8-1579     Driving in defiles or canyons or on steep grades.

8-1580     Coasting prohibited.

8-1581     Following fire apparatus prohibited.

8-1582     Driving over fire hose prohibited.

8-1583     Putting glass, etc., on highway prohibited.

8-1584     Restrictions on driving into intersection or crosswalk or onto railroad grade crossing.

8-1585     Limitations on operation of snowmobile.

8-1586     Unlawful acts; application of regulations.

8-1587     Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles.

8-1588     Riding on bicycles.

8-1589     Same; clinging to other vehicles prohibited.

8-1590     Riding on bicycles or mopeds; riding on roadways and bicycle paths.

8-1591     Same; carrying articles.

8-1592     Lamps, brakes and other equipment on bicycles.

8-1592a   Application of 8-1586 to 8-1592 to motorized bicycles.

8-1592b   Electric-assisted bicycles; traffic law application; no registration or driver's license required.

8-1593     Rights and duties of persons riding motorcycles.

8-1594     Operation of motorcycles.

8-1595     Same; roadways laned for traffic.

8-1596     Same; clinging to other vehicles prohibited.

8-1597     Same; equipment on motorcycles for passengers.

8-1598     Operation of motorcycles; equipment required for operators and riders.

8-1599     Transportation of liquor in opened containers unlawful; exceptions; penalty; report of prior convictions; city or county not prohibited from enacting comparable ordinance or resolution, requirements.

8-15,100  Operation of all-terrain vehicles; where; when; exceptions.

8-15,102  Littering.

8-15,103  Failure to obey school crossing guard.

8-15,104  School crossing guards; appointment; training; limitations.

8-15,106  Operation of micro utility truck; where, when, exceptions.

8-15,107  Removal of vehicles obstructing traffic; requirements.

8-15,108  Operation of golf cart, where, when, exceptions.

8-15, 109 Operation of work-site utility vehicle; where, when, exceptions.

8-15,110  Covering license plate with plastic-like material.

8-15,111  Text messaging, prohibited; exceptions.


8-1501. Application of sections in article 15.

          The provisions of this article relating to the operation of vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon highways except:

          (a) Where a different place is specifically referred to in a given section; and

          (b) The provisions of K.S.A. 8-1566 to 8-1568, inclusive, [§ 2 of 2012 SB 60] and the provisions of article 10 of chapter 8 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, shall apply upon highways and elsewhere throughout the state.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1501; L. 2012, ch. 172, § 19; July 1.

8-1503. Required obedience to lawful order of police officer or fireman; misdemeanor.

          No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any police officer or fireman invested by law with authority to direct, control or regulate traffic. Violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1503; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 2; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1504. Rights and duties of person riding animal or driving animal-drawn vehicle.

          Every person riding an animal or driving any animal-drawn vehicle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this article, except those provisions of this article which by their very nature can have no application.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1504; July 1.

8-1505. Application of traffic laws to highway construction or maintenance operations.

          Unless specifically made applicable, the provisions of this article except those contained in K.S.A. 8-1566 to 8-1568, inclusive, shall not apply to persons, motor vehicles and equipment while actually engaged in work upon a highway, but shall apply to such persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such work.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1505; July 1.

8-1506. Authorized emergency vehicles; rights, duties and liability of drivers thereof.

          (a) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, or when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth in this section, but subject to the conditions herein stated.

          (b) The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle may:

          (1) Park or stand, irrespective of the provisions of this article;

          (2) Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation;

          (3) Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as such driver does not endanger life or property;

          (4) Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions; and

          (5) Proceed through toll booths on roads or bridges without stopping for payment of tolls, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation and the picking up or returning of toll cards.

          (c) The exemptions herein granted to an authorized emergency vehicle shall apply only when such vehicle is making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1738 and visual signals meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1720, except that an authorized emergency vehicle operated as a police vehicle need not be equipped with or display a red light visible from in front of the vehicle.

          (d) The foregoing provisions shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions protect the driver from the consequences of reckless disregard for the safety of others.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1506; L. 1977, ch. 43, § 1; July 1.

8-1507. Official traffic-control devices; required obedience; placement; presumptions.

          (a) The driver of any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device applicable thereto, placed in accordance with the provisions of this act, unless otherwise directed by a police officer, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in this act.

          (b) No provision of this act for which official traffic-control devices are required shall be enforced against an alleged violator if, at the time and place of the alleged violation, an official device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be seen by an ordinarily observant person. Whenever a particular section does not state that official traffic-control devices are required, such section shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place.

          (c) Whenever official traffic-control devices are placed in position approximately conforming to the requirements of this act, such devices shall be presumed to have been so placed by the official act or direction of lawful authority, unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

          (d) Any official traffic-control device placed pursuant to the provisions of this act and purporting to conform to the lawful requirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed to comply with the requirements of this act, unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1507; July 1.

8-1508. Traffic-control signal legend.

          Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend, and said lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:

          (a) Green indication. (1) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left, unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn; but vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time such signal is exhibited.

          (2) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may enter the intersection cautiously only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

          (3) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal, as provided in K.S.A. 8-1509, and amendments thereto, pedestrians facing any green signal, except when the sole green signal is a turn arrow, may proceed across the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.

          (b) Steady yellow indication. (1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal is thereby warned that the related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter when vehicular traffic shall not enter the intersection.

          (2) Pedestrians facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in K.S.A. 8-1509, and amendments thereto, are thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown, and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway.

          (c) Steady red indication. (1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection, and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown, except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) of this subsection. Any turn provided for in paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) shall be governed by the applicable provisions of K.S.A. 8-1545, and amendments thereto.

          (2) Unless a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection to make a right turn after stopping as required by paragraph (1) of this subsection. After stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

          (3) Unless a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic upon a roadway restricted to one-way traffic facing a steady red signal at the intersection of such roadway with another roadway restricted to one-way traffic which is proceeding to the left of such vehicular traffic, may cautiously enter the intersection to make a left turn after stopping as required by paragraph (1) of this subsection. After stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

          (4) The driver of a motorcycle or a person riding a bicycle facing any steady red signal, which fails to change to a green light within a reasonable period of time because of a signal malfunction or because the signal has failed to detect the arrival of the motorcycle or bicycle because of its size or weight, shall have the right to proceed subject to the rules stated herein. After stopping, the driver or rider shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in or near the intersection or approaching on a roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver or rider is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such motorcycle or bicycle traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

          (5) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in K.S.A. 8-1509, and amendments thereto, pedestrians facing a steady circular red or red arrow signal alone shall not enter the roadway.

          (d) In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at the signal.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1508; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 46; L. 1994, ch. 215, § 1; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 1; L. 2011, ch. 45, § 3; July 1.

8-1509. Pedestrian control signals.

          Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting the words 'walk' or 'don't walk' or symbols of 'walking person' or 'upraised palm' are in place, such signals shall indicate as follows:

          (a) Flashing or steady walk or walking person.Pedestrians facing such signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right-of-way by the drivers of all vehicles.

          (b) Flashing or steady don't walk or upraised palm. No pedestrian shall start to cross the roadway in the direction of such signal, but any pedestrian who has partially completed crossing on the 'walk' or 'walking person' signal shall proceed to a sidewalk or safety island while the 'don't walk' or upraised palm signal is showing.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1509; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 2; July 1.

8-1510. Flashing traffic signals.

          (a) Whenever an illuminated flashing red or yellow light is used in a traffic signal or with a traffic sign it shall require obedience by vehicular traffic as follows:

          (1) Flashing red (stop signal).When a red lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it, and the right to proceed shall be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign.

          (2) Flashing yellow (caution signal).When a yellow lens is illuminated with rapid intermittent flashes, drivers of vehicles may proceed through the intersection or past such signal only with caution.

          (b) This section shall not apply at railroad grade crossings. Conduct of drivers of vehicles approaching railroad grade crossings shall be governed by the rules as set forth in K.S.A. 8-1558 [FN*].

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1510; July 1.

[FN*] Reference apparently should be to 18-1551.

8-1511. Lane-direction-control signals.

          When lane-direction-control signals are placed over the individual lanes of a street or highway, such signals shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles as follows:

          (a) Green indication.Vehicular traffic may travel in any lane over which a green signal is shown.

          (b) Steady yellow indication.Vehicular traffic is thereby warned that a lane control change is being made.

          (c) Steady red indication.Vehicular traffic shall not enter or travel in any lane over which a red signal is shown.

          (d) Flashing yellow indication.Vehicular traffic may use the lane only for the purpose of approaching and making a left turn.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1511; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 3; July 1.

8-1512. Placement, maintenance or display of unauthorized signs, signals, markings or devices.

          (a) No person shall place, maintain or display upon or in view of any highway any unauthorized sign, signal, marking or device which purports to be or is an imitation of or resembles an official traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, or which attempts to direct the movement of traffic, or which hides from view or interferes with the effectiveness of an official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal.

          (b) No person shall place or maintain nor shall any public authority permit upon any highway any official traffic control device bearing thereon any commercial advertising, except for business signs included as part of official motorist service panels or roadside area information panels approved by the secretary of transportation.

          (c) This section shall not be deemed to prohibit the erection upon private property adjacent to highways of signs giving useful directional information and of a type that cannot be mistaken for official signs.

          (d) Every such prohibited sign, signal or marking is hereby declared to be a public nuisance and the authority having jurisdiction over the highway is hereby empowered to remove the same or cause it to be removed without notice.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1512; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 4; July 1.

8-1513. Interference with official traffic-control devices or railroad signs or signals; misdemeanor.

          No person, without lawful authority, shall attempt to or in fact alter, deface, injure, knock down or remove any official traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal or any inscription, shield or insignia thereon, or any other part thereof. Violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1513; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 3; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1514. Driving on right side of roadway required; exceptions.

          (a) Upon all roadways of sufficient width, a vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway, except as follows:

          (1) When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction under the rules governing such movement;

          (2) When an obstruction exists making it necessary to drive to the left of the center of the highway, except that any person so doing shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper direction upon the unobstructed portion of the highway within such distance as to constitute an immediate hazard;

          (3) Upon a roadway divided into three (3) marked lanes for traffic under the rules applicable thereon; or

          (4) Upon a roadway restricted to one-way traffic.

          (b) Upon all roadways any vehicle proceeding at less than the normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the conditions then existing shall be driven in the right-hand lane then available for traffic, or as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway.

          (c) Upon any roadway having four (4) or more lanes for moving traffic and providing for two-way movement of traffic, no vehicle shall be driven to the left of the center line of the roadway, except when authorized by official traffic-control devices designating certain lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as permitted under subsection (a) (2) hereof. However, this subsection shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1514; July 1.

8-1515. Overtaking and passing; vehicles proceeding in opposite directions.

          Drivers of vehicles proceeding in opposite directions shall pass each other to the right, and upon roadways having width for not more than one (1) line of traffic in each direction, each driver shall give to the other at least one-half (1/2) of the main-traveled portion of the roadway as nearly as possible.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1515; July 1.

8-1516. Same; vehicles proceeding in same direction.

          The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of vehicles and bicycles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those limitations, exceptions and special rules hereinafter stated:

          (a) The driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken vehicle.

          (b) Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor of the overtaking vehicle on audible signal and shall not increase the speed of his or her vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.

          (c) (1) The driver of a vehicle overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a distance of not less than three feet and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken bicycle.

          (2) The driver of a vehicle may pass a bicycle proceeding in the same direction in a no-passing zone with the duty to execute the pass only when it is safe to do so.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1516; L. 2011, ch. 45, § 4; July 1.

8-1517. Same; when passing on the right permitted.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle only under the following conditions:

          (1) When the vehicle overtaken is making or about to make a left turn;

          (2) upon a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for two or more lines of vehicles moving lawfully in the direction being traveled by the overtaking vehicle; or

          (3) a transit bus authorized under and being operated in accordance with the provisions of K.S.A. 75-5091, and amendments thereto.

          (b) The driver of a vehicle may overtake and pass another vehicle upon the right only under conditions permitting such movement in safety. Such movement shall not be made by driving off the roadway, except as authorized under K.S.A. 75-5091, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1517; L. 2010, ch. 134, § 2; July 1.

8-1518. Same; limitations on passing on the left.

          Except as otherwise provided in this article, no vehicle shall be driven to the left side of the center of the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in the same direction unless such left side is clearly visible and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit such overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering with the operation of any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction or any vehicle overtaken. In every event the overtaking vehicle must return to an authorized lane of travel as soon as practicable and in the event the passing movement involves the use of a lane authorized for vehicles approaching from the opposite direction, before coming within two hundred (200) feet of any approaching vehicle.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1518; July 1.

8-1519. Driving on left side of roadway prohibited; exceptions.

          (a) No vehicle shall be driven on the left side of the roadway under the following conditions:

          (1) When approaching or upon the crest of a grade or a curve in the highway where the driver's view is obstructed within such distance as to create a hazard in the event another vehicle might approach from the opposite direction;

          (2) when approaching within 100 feet of or traversing any intersection or railroad grade crossing, except that this section shall not apply to any intersection on a state or county maintained highway located outside city limits unless such intersection is marked by an official department of transportation or county road department traffic control device or pavement marking or both indicating that passing is prohibited and such marking is placed at least 100 feet before the intersection; or

          (3) when the view is obstructed upon approaching within 100 feet of any bridge, viaduct or tunnel.

          (b) The foregoing limitations shall not apply upon a one-way roadway, nor under the conditions described in subsection (a)(2) of K.S.A. 8-1514 and amendments thereto, nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1519; L. 1987, ch. 47, § 1; July 1.

8-1520. No-passing zones; designation by secretary of transportation or local authorities; duties of drivers.

          (a) The secretary of transportation and local authorities are hereby authorized to determine those portions of any highway under their respective jurisdictions where overtaking and passing or driving on the left side of the roadway would be especially hazardous and by appropriate signs or markings on the roadway may indicate the beginning and end of such zones and when such signs or markings are in place and clearly visible to an ordinarily observant person, every driver of a vehicle shall obey the directions thereof.

          (b) Where signs or markings are in place to define a no-passing zone as set forth in subsection (a), no driver at any time shall drive on the left side of the roadway within such no-passing zone or on the left side of any pavement striping designed to mark such no-passing zone throughout its length.

          (c) This section does not apply under the conditions described in subsection (a) (2) of K.S.A. 8-1514, nor to the driver of a vehicle turning left into or from an alley, private road or driveway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1520; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 20; Aug. 15.

8-1520a. Unlawful passing of stopped emergency vehicle or work vehicle.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle shall not overtake and pass another vehicle when approaching within 100 feet of:

          (1) a stationary authorized emergency vehicle on a highway that consists of two lanes carrying traffic in opposite directions, when the authorized emergency vehicle is making use of visual signals meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1720, and amendments thereto, or subsection (d) of K.S.A. 8-1722, and amendments thereto;

          (2) a stationary authorized vehicle which is obviously and actually engaged in work on a highway that consists of two lanes carrying traffic in opposite directions, when such vehicle displays flashing lights meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1731, and amendments thereto.

          (b) From and after the effective date of this act, and prior to July 1, 2007, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection (a).

          (c) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2000, ch. 179 § 1; L. 2006, ch. 133, § 1; July 1.

8-1521. One-way highways, roadways or traffic lanes; designation by secretary of transportation or local authorities; duties of drivers; rotary traffic islands.

          (a) The secretary of transportation and local authorities with respect to highways under their respective jurisdictions may designate any highway, roadway, part of a roadway or specific lanes upon which vehicular traffic shall proceed in one (1) direction at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic-control devices.

          (b) Upon a roadway so designated for one-way traffic, a vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated at all or such times as shall be indicated by official traffic-control devices.

          (c) A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be driven only to the right of such island.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1521; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 21; Aug. 15.

8-1522. Driving on roadways laned for traffic.

          Whenever any roadway has been divided into two or more clearly marked lanes for traffic, the following rules in addition to all others consistent herewith shall apply.

          (a) A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practicable entirely within a single lane and shall not be moved from such lane until the driver has first ascertained that such movement can be made with safety.

          (b) Upon a roadway which is divided into three lanes and provides for two-way movement of traffic, a vehicle shall not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing another vehicle traveling in the same direction when such center lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance, or in preparation for making a left turn or where such center lane is at the time allocated exclusively to traffic moving in the same direction that the vehicle is proceeding and such allocation is designated by official traffic-control devices.

          (c) Upon a highway located outside the corporate limits of any city divided into two lanes of traffic proceeding in the same direction, all vehicles shall be driven in the right lane except when:

          (1) Overtaking and passing another vehicle;

          (2) preparing to make a proper left turn;

          (3) otherwise directed by official traffic-control devices; or

          (4) otherwise required by other provisions of law.

          (d) Upon a highway located outside the corporate limits of any city divided into three or more lanes of traffic proceeding in the same direction, vehicles shall not be driven in the far left lane except when:

          (1) Overtaking and passing another vehicle;

          (2) preparing to make a proper left turn;

          (3) otherwise directed by official traffic-control devices; or

          (4) otherwise required by other provisions of law.

          (e) The provisions of subsections (c) and (d) shall not apply to authorized emergency vehicles, law enforcement vehicles, Kansas turnpike authority vehicles or department of transportation vehicles performing construction or maintenance work.

          (f) Official traffic-control devices may be erected directing specified traffic to use a designated lane or designating those lanes to be used by traffic moving in a particular direction regardless of the center of the roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.

          (g) Official traffic-control devices may be installed prohibiting the changing of lanes on sections of roadway and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions of every such device.

          (h) From and after July 1, 2009, and prior to July 1, 2010, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating the provisions of subsection (c) or (d).

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1522; L. 2009, ch. 108, § 1; July 1.

8-1523. Following another vehicle too closely.

          (a) The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow another vehicle more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and the condition of the highway.

          (b) The driver of any truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle when traveling upon a roadway outside of a business or residence district and which is following another truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle shall leave sufficient space, whenever conditions permit, so that an overtaking vehicle may enter and occupy such space without danger, except that this shall not prevent a truck or motor vehicle drawing another vehicle from overtaking and passing any vehicle or combination of vehicles.

          (c) Motor vehicles being driven upon any roadway outside of a business or residence district in a caravan or motorcade, whether or not towing other vehicles, shall be so operated as to allow sufficient space between each such vehicle or combination of vehicles so as to enable any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger. This provision shall not apply to funeral processions.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1523; July 1.

8-1524. Driving limitations on divided highways and controlled-access highways; certain turns prohibited; parking prohibited, when.

          No person shall:

          (a) Drive a vehicle over, upon or across any intervening space, physical barrier or a clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic between roadways on divided highways;

          (b) make a left turn or a semicircular or 'U' turn on the interstate system;

          (c) make a left turn or a semicircular or 'U' turn over, across or within any intervening space, physical barrier or a clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic between roadways on a divided highway, except this subsection (c) does not prohibit making a left turn or a semicircular or 'U' turn through an opening provided and surfaced for the purpose of public use for such turning movement;

          (d) make a left turn or a semicircular or 'U' turn on a divided highway wherever such turn is specifically prohibited by a sign or signs placed by the authority having jurisdiction over that highway;

          (e) drive any vehicle on a divided highway except on the proper roadway provided for that purpose and in the proper direction and to the right of the intervening space, physical barrier or a clearly indicated dividing section so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic between roadways unless directed or permitted to use another roadway by official traffic-control devices or police officers;

          (f) drive any vehicle onto or from any controlled-access highway except at such entrances and exits as are established by the authority having jurisdiction over such highway;

          (g) use controlled-access highway right of way for parking vehicles or mobile equipment, or stacking of materials or equipment, for the purpose of servicing adjacent property; or

          (h) stop, stand or park vehicles on the right of way of controlled-access highways except for:

          (1) Stopping of disabled vehicles;

          (2) stopping to give aid in an emergency;

          (3) stopping in compliance with directions of a police officer or other emergency or safety official;

          (4) stopping due to illness or incapacity of driver; or

          (5) parking in designated parking or rest areas.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1524; L. 1981, ch. 44, § 1; L. 1983, ch. 40, § 1; April 14.

8-1525. Regulation and restrictions on use of controlled-access highways and facilities; misdemeanor.

          (a) The secretary of transportation, by duly adopted resolution or order, and local authorities by ordinance or resolution, may regulate or prohibit the use of any controlled-access highway or facility within their respective jurisdictions by any class or kind of traffic which is found to be incompatible with the normal and safe movement of traffic.

          (b) The secretary or the local authority adopting any such prohibition shall erect and maintain official traffic-control devices on the controlled-access highway or facility on which such prohibitions are applicable, and when in place no person shall disobey the restrictions stated on such devices. Violation of this subsection (b) is a misdemeanor.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1525; L. 1975, ch. 426, § 43; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 4; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1526. Right-of-way; approaching or entering intersection.

          (a) When two (2) vehicles approach or enter an intersection from different highways at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on the right.

          (b) The right-of-way rule declared in subsection (a) is modified at through highways and otherwise as stated in this article.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1526; July 1.

8-1527. Same; turning left.

          The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an intersection or into an alley, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle approaching from the opposite direction which is within the intersection or so close thereto as to constitute an immediate hazard.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1527; July 1.

8-1528. Stop signs and yield signs; duties of drivers.

          (a) Preferential right-of-way may be indicated by stop signs or yield signs as authorized in K.S.A. 8-2008, and amendments thereto.

          (b) Except when directed to proceed by a police officer, every driver of a vehicle approaching a stop sign shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After having stopped, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time when such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk.

          (c) The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall in obedience to such sign slow down to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and, if required for safety to stop, shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, but if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or, if none, then at the point nearest the intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering it. After slowing or stopping, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time such driver is moving across or within the intersection or junction of roadways. Such driver shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk. If a driver is involved in a collision with a vehicle in the intersection or junction of roadways or with a pedestrian in an adjacent crosswalk, after driving past a yield sign without stopping, such collision shall be deemed prima facie evidence of the driver's failure to yield the right-of-way.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1528; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 5; July 1.

8-1529. Vehicle entering or crossing roadway.

          The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a roadway from any place other than another roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching on the roadway to be entered or crossed.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1529; July 1.

8-1530. Duty of driver upon approach of authorized emergency vehicle.

          (a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of subsection (d) of K.S.A. 8-1738, and amendments thereto, and visual signals meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1720, and amendments thereto, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal only, the driver of every other vehicle shall do the following unless otherwise directed by a police officer:

          (1) Yield the right-of-way;

          (2) immediately drive to a position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand edge or curb of the roadway clear of any intersection; and

          (3) stop and remain in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle has passed.

          (b) The driver of a motor vehicle upon approaching a stationary authorized emergency vehicle, when the authorized emergency vehicle is making use of visual signals meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1720, and amendments thereto, or subsection (d) of K.S.A. 8-1722, and amendments thereto, shall do either of the following:

          (1) If the driver of the motor vehicle is traveling on a highway that consists of at least two lanes that carry traffic in the same direction of travel as that of the driver's motor vehicle, the driver shall proceed with due caution and, if possible and with due regard to the road, weather and traffic conditions, shall change lanes into a lane that is not adjacent to that of the stationary authorized emergency vehicle; or

          (2) if the driver is not traveling on a highway of a type described in paragraph (1), or if the driver is traveling on a highway of that type but it is not possible to change lanes or if to do so would be unsafe, the driver shall proceed with due caution, reduce the speed of the motor vehicle and maintain a safe speed for the road, weather and traffic conditions.

          (c) From and after the effective date of this act and prior to July 1, 2001, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating the provisions of subsection (b).

          (d) This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1530; L. 2000, ch. 179 § 20; July 1.

8-1531. Highway construction or maintenance operations; duty of driver.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle or pedestrian actually engaged in work upon a highway within any road construction zone, as defined in K.S.A. 1998 Supp. 8-1458a, indicated by official traffic-control devices.

          (b) The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any authorized vehicle which is obviously and actually engaged in work upon a highway whenever such vehicle displays flashing lights meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1731, and amendments thereto.

          (c) The driver of a motor vehicle upon approaching a stationary authorized vehicle which is obviously and actually engaged in work upon a highway, when such authorized vehicle is displaying flashing lights meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1731, and amendments thereto, shall do either of the following:

          (1) If the driver of the motor vehicle is traveling on a highway that consists of at least two lanes that carry traffic in the same direction of travel as that of the driver’s motor vehicle, the driver shall proceed with due caution and, if possible and with due regard to the road, weather and traffic conditions, shall change lanes into a lane that is not adjacent to that of the stationary authorized vehicle; or

          (2) if the driver is not traveling on a highway of a type described in paragraph (1), or if the driver is traveling on a highway of that type but it is not possible to change lanes or if to do so would be unsafe, the driver shall proceed with due caution, reduce the speed of the motor vehicle and maintain a safe speed for the road, weather and traffic conditions.

(d) From and after the effective date of this act and prior to July 1, 2007, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating the provisions of subsection (c).

(e) This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an authorized

vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1531; L. 1994, ch. 220, § 6; :L. 2006, ch. 133, § 2; July1

8-1531a. Road construction zone, failing to comply with traffic regulations in.

          It shall be unlawful for any person to fail, neglect or refuse to comply with restrictions or traffic regulations in a road construction zone or fail to comply with traffic orders or traffic directions by a flagman in a road construction zone.

History: L. 1994, ch. 220, § 2; April 21.

8-1532. Pedestrians; obedience to official traffic-control devices required.

          (a) A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of any official traffic-control device specifically applicable to such pedestrian, unless otherwise directed by a police officer.

          (b) Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic and pedestrian-control signals as provided in K.S.A. 8-1508 and 8-1509.

          (c) At all other places, pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in this chapter [FN*].

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1532; July 1.

[FN*] Reference to 'chapter' apparently should be to 'article.'

8-1533. Same; right-of-way at crosswalks; interference with vehicular traffic; duties of drivers.

          (a) When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way, slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when the pedestrian is approaching so closely from the opposite half of the roadway as to be in danger.

          (b) No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.

          (c) Subsection (a) shall not apply under the conditions stated in subsection (b) of K.S.A. 8-1534.

          (d) Whenever any vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass such stopped vehicle.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1533; July 1.

8-1534. Same; crossing roadway at location other than crosswalk.

          (a) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

          (b) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

          (c) Between adjacent intersections at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.

          (d) No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices; and, when authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the official traffic-control devices pertaining to such crossing movements.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1534; July 1.

8-1535. Same; drivers to exercise due care.

          Notwithstanding other provisions of this article or the provisions of any local ordinance, every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian and shall give warning by sounding the horn when necessary and shall exercise proper precaution upon observing any child or any obviously confused or incapacitated person.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1535; July 1.

8-1536. Same; movement in crosswalk.

          Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1536; July 1.

8-1537. Same; use of roadways.

          (a) Where a sidewalk is provided and its use is practicable, it shall be unlawful for any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent roadway.

          (b) Where a sidewalk is not available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk only on a shoulder, as far as practicable from the edge of the roadway.

          (c) Where neither a sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk as near as practicable to an outside edge of the roadway, and, if on a two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the roadway.

          (d) Except as otherwise provided in this article, any pedestrian upon a roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1537; July 1.

8-1538. Soliciting rides, business or contributions; exception.

          (a) No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of soliciting a ride.

          (b) No person shall stand on a highway for the purpose of soliciting employment, business or contributions from the occupant of any vehicle.

          (c) No person shall stand on or in proximity to a street or highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a street or highway.

          (d) The soliciting of contributions under subsection (b) shall not be prohibited, if such person or organization has first obtained a permit authorizing such soliciting from the local authorities in their respective jurisdictions.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1538; L. 1995, ch. 65, § 1; Apr. 6.

8-1539. Driving through safety zone prohibited.

          No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a safety zone.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1539; July 1.

8-1540. Pedestrians' right-of-way on sidewalks.

          The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian on a sidewalk.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1540; July 1.

8-1541. Pedestrians must yield right-of-way to authorized emergency vehicle.

          (a) Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of an audible signal meeting the requirements of subsection (d) of K.S.A. 8-1738 and visual signals meeting the requirements of K.S.A. 8-1720, or of a police vehicle properly and lawfully making use of an audible signal only, every pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to the authorized emergency vehicle.

          (b) This section shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway nor from the duty to exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1541; July 1.

8-1542. Blind pedestrian's right-of-way.

          The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any blind pedestrian carrying a clearly visible white cane or accompanied by a guide dog.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1542; July 1.

8-1543. Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or drugs; misdemeanor.

          A pedestrian who is under the influence of alcohol or any drug to a degree which renders such pedestrian a hazard shall not walk or be upon a highway except on a sidewalk. Violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1543; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 5; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1544. Obedience of pedestrian to bridge and railroad signals required.

          (a) No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or approach thereto beyond the bridge signal, gate or barrier after a bridge operation signal indication has been given.

          (b) No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or bridge while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1544; July 1.

8-1545. Required position and method of turning vehicles.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle intending to turn shall do so as follows:

          (1) Right turns.Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn shall be made as close as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.

          (2) Left turns.The driver of a vehicle intending to turn left shall approach the turn in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the direction of travel of such vehicle. Whenever practicable a left turn at an intersection shall be made to the left of the center of the intersection, and any left turn shall be made so as to leave the intersection or other location in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to traffic moving in the same direction as such vehicle on the roadway being entered.

          (b) Two-way left turn lanes.Where a special lane for making left turns by drivers proceeding in opposite directions has been indicated by official traffic control devices: (1) A left turn shall not be made from any other lane; (2) a vehicle shall not be driven in the lane except when preparing for or making a left turn from or into the roadway or when preparing for or making a U-turn when otherwise permitted by law.

          (c) The secretary of transportation and local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause official traffic-control devices to be placed and thereby require and direct that a different course from that specified in this section be traveled by turning vehicles, and when such devices are so placed no driver shall turn a vehicle other than as directed and required by such devices.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1545; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 22; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 6; July 1.

8-1546. Limitations on 'U' turns.

          (a) The driver of any vehicle shall not turn such vehicle so as to proceed in the opposite direction unless such movement can be made in safety and without interfering with other traffic.

          (b) No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to or near the crest of a grade, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within five hundred (500) feet.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1546; July 1.

8-1547. Starting parked vehicle.

          No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing or parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1547; July 1.

8-1548. Turning movements and required signals.

          (a) No person shall turn a vehicle or move right or left upon a roadway unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety, nor without giving an appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter provided.

          (b) A signal of intention to turn or move right or left when required shall be given continuously during not less than the last one hundred (100) feet traveled by the vehicle before turning.

          (c) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle without first giving an appropriate signal, in the manner provided herein, to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is opportunity to give such signal.

          (d) The signals required on vehicles by subsection (b) of K.S.A. 8-1549 shall not be flashed on one side only on a disabled vehicle, flashed as a courtesy or 'do pass' signal to operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear, nor be flashed on one side only of a parked vehicle except as may be necessary for compliance with this section.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1548; July 1.

8-1549. Methods of giving notice of intention to turn.

          The driver of any motor vehicle or combination of vehicles which is required to be equipped with electric turn signal lamps by K.S.A. 8-1708 shall give any required notice of intention to turn by means of electric turn signals meeting the requirements of subsection (b) of K.S.A. 8-1721. The driver of any other motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall give such notice by means of hand and arm signals, as provided in K.S.A. 8-1550, or by such electric turn signals.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1549; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 9; April 19.

8-1550. Same; hand and arm signals.

          All signals herein required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the vehicle in the following manner and such signals shall indicate as follows:

          (a) Left turn.Hand and arm extended horizontally.

          (b) Right turn.Hand and arm extended upward.

          (c) Stop or decrease speed.Hand and arm extended downward.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1550; July 1.

8-1551. Obedience to signal indicating approach of train.

          (a) Whenever any person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade crossing under any of the circumstances stated in this section, the driver of such vehicle shall stop within fifty (50) feet but not less than fifteen (15) feet from the nearest rail of such railroad, and shall not proceed until he or she can do so safely. The foregoing requirements shall apply when:

          (1) A clearly visible electric or mechanical signal device gives warning of the immediate approach of a railroad train;

          (2) A crossing gate is lowered or when a human flagman gives or continues to give a signal of the approach or passage of a railroad train;

          (3) A railroad train approaching within approximately one thousand five hundred (1,500) feet of the highway crossing emits a signal audible from such distance and such railroad train, by reason of its speed or nearness to such crossing, is an immediate hazard; or

          (4) An approaching railroad train is plainly visible and is in hazardous proximity to such crossing.

          (b) No person shall drive any vehicle through, around or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad crossing while such gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1551; July 1.

8-1552. Designation of dangerous railroad grade crossings; vehicles required to stop, when.

          The secretary of transportation and local authorities, with the approval of the secretary, are hereby authorized to designate particularly dangerous highway grade crossings of railroads and to erect stop signs thereat. When such stop signs are erected, the driver of any vehicle shall stop within fifty (50) feet but not less than fifteen (15) feet from the nearest rail of such railroad and shall proceed only upon exercising due care.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1552; L. 1975, ch. 426, § 44; Aug. 15.

8-1553. Certain vehicles required to stop at railroad grade crossings; exceptions.

          (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the driver of any vehicle described in rules and regulations issued pursuant to subsection (c), before crossing at grade any track or tracks of a railroad, shall stop such vehicle within 50 feet but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail of such railroad and while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions along such track for any approaching train, and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not proceed until such driver can do so safely. After stopping as required and upon proceeding when it is safe to do so, the driver of any vehicle shall cross only in such gear of the vehicle that there will be no necessity for manually changing gears while traversing such crossings and the driver shall not manually shift gears while crossing the track or tracks.

          (b) This section shall not apply at:

          (1) Any railroad grade crossing at which traffic is controlled by a police officer or human flagman;

          (2) any railroad grade crossing at which traffic is controlled by a functioning highway traffic signal transmitting a green indication which, under local law, permits a vehicle to proceed across the railroad tracks without slowing or stopping;

          (3) any abandoned railroad grade crossing which is marked with a sign indicating that the rail line is abandoned;

          (4) any industrial or spur line railroad grade crossing marked with a sign reading 'Exempt.' Such exempt signs shall be erected only by or with the consent of the appropriate state or local authority;

          (5) a railroad grade crossing used exclusively for industrial switching purposes, within a business district defined in K.S.A. 8-1407, and amendments thereto.

          (c) The secretary of transportation, in conjunction with the state corporation commission, shall adopt such rules and regulations as may be necessary describing the vehicles which must comply with the stopping requirements of this section. Such rules and regulations shall correlate with and so far as possible conform to the federal motor carrier safety regulations of the United States department of transportation.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1553; L. 1975, ch. 426, § 45; L. 1989, ch. 41, § 1; L. 1993, ch. 36, § 1; July 1.

8-1554. Moving heavy equipment at railroad grade crossings; notice to railroad's station agent.

          (a) No person shall operate or move any crawler-type tractor, steam shovel, derrick, roller, or any equipment or structure having a normal operating speed of ten (10) or less miles per hour or a vertical body or load clearance of less than one-half (1/2) inch per foot of the distance between any two (2) adjacent axles or in any event of less than nine (9) inches, measured above the level surface of a roadway, upon or across any tracks at a railroad grade crossing without first complying with this section.

          (b) Notice of any such intended crossing shall be given to a station agent of such railroad and a reasonable time be given to such railroad to provide proper protection at such crossing.

          (c) Before making any such crossing, the person operating or moving any such vehicle or equipment shall first stop the same not less than fifteen (15) feet nor more than fifty (50) feet from the nearest rail of such railroad, and while so stopped, shall listen and look in both directions along such track for any approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not proceed until the crossing can be made safely.

          (d) No such crossing shall be made when warning is given by automatic signal or crossing gates or a flagman or otherwise of the immediate approach of a railroad train or car. If a flagman is provided by the railroad, movement over the crossing shall be under the direction of the flagman.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1554; July 1.

8-1555. Vehicle emerging from alley, building, private road or driveway.

          The driver of a vehicle emerging from an alley, building, private road or driveway within a business or residence district shall stop such vehicle immediately prior to driving onto a sidewalk or onto the sidewalk area extending across such alley, building entrance, road or driveway, or in the event there is no sidewalk area, shall stop at the point nearest the street to be entered where the driver has a view of approaching traffic thereon.

History. L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1555; July 1.

8-1556. Overtaking and passing school bus; actuation of visual signals by driver of bus, when; required school bus markings.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle meeting or overtaking from either direction any school bus stopped on the highway shall stop before reaching such school bus when there is in operation on the school bus the flashing red lights specified in subsection (a) of K.S.A. 8-1730, and amendments thereto, and the driver shall not proceed until such school bus resumes motion or the flashing red lights and the stop signal arm are no longer actuated.

          (b) Every school bus shall be equipped with red visual signals meeting the requirements of subsection (a) of K.S.A. 8-1730, and amendments thereto, which may be actuated by the driver of the school bus whenever but only whenever such vehicle is stopped on the highway for the purpose of receiving or discharging school children. A school bus driver shall not actuate the special visual signals:

          (1) At intersections or other places where traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals or police officers; or

          (2) in designated school bus loading areas where the bus is entirely off the roadway.

          (c) Every school bus shall bear upon the front and rear thereof plainly visible signs containing the words ‘‘school bus’’ in letters not less than eight inches in height.

          When a school bus is being operated upon a highway for purposes other than the actual transportation of children either to or from school or to or from interschool or intraschool functions or activities, or for maintenance, repair or storage purposes all markings thereon indicating 'school bus' shall be covered or concealed.

          (d) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway with separate roadways need not stop upon meeting or passing a school bus which is on a different roadway or when upon a controlled-access highway and the school bus is stopped in a loading zone which is a part of or adjacent to such highway and where pedestrians are not permitted to cross the roadway.

          (e) The provisions of this section shall be subject to the provisions contained in K.S.A. 8-2009a, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1556; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 10; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 23; L. 1976, ch. 40, § 6; L. 1997, ch. 133, § 4; L. 2002, Ch. 169, § 1 (HB 2145); July 1.

8-1556a. Passing church and day care program buses; use of signals.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle meeting or overtaking from either direction any church bus or day care program bus stopped on the highway shall stop before reaching such church bus or day care program bus when there is in operation on said church bus or day care program bus the flashing red lights specified in subsection (a) of K.S.A. 8-1730, and said driver shall not proceed until such church bus or day care program bus resumes motion or said driver is signaled by the church bus or day care program bus driver to proceed or the flashing red lights and stop signal arm, if any, are no longer actuated.

          (b) If a church bus or day care program bus is equipped with visual signals permitted by subsection (b) of K.S.A. 8-1730a, such signals may be actuated by the driver of said church bus or day care program bus only when such vehicle is stopped on the highway for the purpose of receiving or discharging passengers. A church bus or day care program bus driver shall not actuate said special visual signals: (1) At intersections or other places where traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals or police officers; or (2) in designated loading areas where the bus is entirely off the roadway.

          (c) The driver of a vehicle upon a highway with separate roadways need not stop upon meeting or passing a church bus or day care program bus which is on a separate roadway or when upon a controlled-access highway and the church bus or day care program bus is stopped in a loading zone which is part of or adjacent to such highway and where pedestrians are not permitted to cross the roadway.

History: L. 1978, ch. 40, § 4; L. 1980, ch. 43, § 3; July 1.

8-1557. Basic rule governing speed of vehicles.

          No person shall drive a vehicle at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual hazards then existing. Consistent with the foregoing, every person shall drive at a safe and appropriate speed when approaching and crossing an intersection or railroad grade crossing, when approaching and going around a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when traveling upon any narrow or winding roadway, and when special hazards exist with respect to pedestrians or other traffic or by reason of weather or highway conditions.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1557; July 1.

8-1558. Maximum speed limits.

          (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) and except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed for compliance with K.S.A. 8-1557, and amendments thereto, the limits specified in this subsection or established as authorized by law shall be maximum lawful speeds, and no person shall operate a vehicle at a speed in excess of such maximum limits:

          (1) In any urban district, 30 miles per hour;

          (2) on any separated multilane highway, as designated and posted by the secretary of transportation, 75 miles per hour;

          (3) on any county or township highway, 55 miles per hour; and

          (4) on all other highways, 65 miles per hour.

          (b) No person shall drive a school bus to or from school, or interschool or intraschool functions or activities, at a speed in excess of the maximum speed limits provided in subsection (a), except that the board of education of any school district may establish by board policy lower maximum speed limits for the operation of such district’s school buses. The provisions of this subsection relating to school buses shall apply to buses used for the transportation of students enrolled in community colleges or area vocational schools, when such buses are transporting students to or from school, or functions or activities.

          (c) The maximum speed limits in this section may be altered as authorized in K.S.A. 8-1559 and 8-1560, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1558; L. 1976, ch. 40, § 7; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 6; L. 1996, ch. 15, § 5; L. 2003, ch. 100, § 4; L. 2011, ch. 45, § 5; July 1.

8-1559. Alteration of maximum speed limits; establishing speed limits in road construction zones; powers of secretary of transportation.

          (a) The secretary of transportation may determine and declare:

          (1) Based on an engineering and traffic investigation that an existing speed limit is greater or less than what is reasonable or safe under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or other place or upon any part of the state highway system, or upon any city street which is a state highway connecting link; or

          (2) based on information or circumstances known to the secretary, without an engineering or traffic investigation, that a speed less than the maximum otherwise allowed is warranted. If the secretary determines to designate a speed limit under authority of this paragraph the secretary shall prepare a statement and notice of alteration of maximum speed limit. The statement shall be in writing, shall specify the designated maximum speed limit, the route or routes affected, or any segment thereof, the factors upon which the decision is based and the date on which the speed limit shall be effective. The notice shall specify the route or routes affected, or segments thereof, the designated maximum speed limit and the effective date. The notice required under this paragraph shall be sent to the Kansas highway patrol and the sheriff of any county in which the affected route or routes are located prior to the effective date of the new maximum speed limit.

          (b) Any maximum speed limit declared under subsection (a) may be effective at all times or at designated times; and differing speed limits may be established for different times of day, different types of vehicles, varying weather conditions, or other factors bearing on safe speeds. In addition to any other requirement imposed on the secretary of transportation, no alteration in the speed limits under subsection (a) shall be effective until posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs.

          (c) The secretary of transportation may establish the speed limit within a road construction zone, as defined in K.S.A. 1998 Supp. 8-1458a, and amendments thereto, upon any highway under the jurisdiction of the secretary, and the speed limit shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected.

          (d) The secretary of transportation shall not establish any maximum speed limit in excess of the maximum speed limits established by K.S.A. 8-1558, and amendments thereto, except that the secretary may establish a speed limit which exceeds the limit established under K.S.A. 8- 1558(a)(4), and amendments thereto, by five miles per hour on any such highway located outside of an urban district. Prior to increasing any speed limit authorized pursuant to this subsection, the secretary shall consider the effects of K.S.A. 8-1560c and 8-1560d before establishing a higher speed limit.

          (e) The secretary of transportation shall not alter any speed limit established under K.S.A. 8-1560(a)(4), and amendments thereto, without first obtaining approval from the local authority.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1559; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 24; L. 1994, ch. 220, § 7; L. 1996, ch. 15, § 6; L. 2016, ch. 60, § 5; July 1.

8-1560. Alteration of maximum speed limits; powers of local authorities, limitations and restrictions; establishing speed limits in road construction zones.

          (a) Whenever local authorities in their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that the maximum speed permitted is greater or less than is reasonable and safe under the conditions found to exist upon a highway or part of a highway, the local authority may determine and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which:

          (1) Decreases the limit at intersections;

          (2) increases the limit within an urban district but not to exceed the maximum speed of 65 miles per hour;

          (3) decreases the limit outside an urban district, but not to less than 20 miles per hour, except as authorized by K.S.A. 1998 Supp. 8-1560a, and amendments thereto;

          (4) decreases the limit within an urban district in a school zone to not less than 20 miles per hour, except that any such decreased limit shall apply only during the hours in which students are normally en route to or from school, such zones and hours to be determined by ordinance or resolution of such local authority; or

          (5) decreases the limit within any residence district, but not to less than 20 miles per hour.

          (b) Except as provided in subsection (h), local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may determine by an engineering and traffic investigation the proper maximum speed for all arterial streets and shall declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which may be greater or less than the maximum speed permitted under this act for an urban district or other location in which the arterial street is situated, except that in no event shall any local authority establish any such maximum limit in excess of 65 miles per hour.

          (c) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (4) of subsection (a), any altered limit established as authorized shall be effective at all times or during hours of darkness or at other times as may be determined when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected upon such street or highway.

          (d) Any alteration of maximum limits on city connecting links shall not be effective until such alteration has been approved by the secretary of transportation.

          (e) If local authorities in their respective jurisdictions have established a speed limit within any residence district which is less than 30 miles per hour, prior to the effective date of this act, such speed limit shall be deemed valid and shall not require an engineering and traffic investigation.

          (f) Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may establish the speed limit within a road construction zone, as defined in K.S.A. 1998 Supp. 8-1458a, and amendments thereto, upon any highway under the jurisdiction of such local authorities.

          (g) The provisions of K.S.A. 1998 Supp. 8-1560b, and amendments thereto, shall apply to the limitations on speed limits provided by subsection (a) of this section.

          (h) Local authorities who have jurisdiction over county or township highways may determine based on an engineering and traffic investigation or without an engineering and traffic investigation the proper maximum speed for such county or township highways and shall declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon which may be greater or less than the maximum speed permitted under this act, except that in no event shall any local authority establish any such maximum limit in excess of 65 miles per hour.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1560; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 11; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 25; L. 1978, ch. 271, § 2; L. 1994, ch. 220, § 8; L. 1996, ch. 15, § 7; L. 1997, ch. 80, § 3; July 1.

8-1560a. Wabaunsee county improvement district speed limits; how fixed; local authority status.

          (a) Whenever the governing body of any improvement district which is located adjacent to any park or recreation area within Wabaunsee county determines that the maximum speed prescribed by law is greater than is reasonable and safe under the conditions found to exist upon any highway or part of a highway located within such improvement district, the governing body, by resolution, may determine and declare a reasonable and safe maximum limit thereon. Such resolution shall be published once each week for two consecutive weeks in the official county newspaper and a copy thereof filed with the board of county commissioners of the county. Speed limits fixed pursuant to this section shall become effective only after appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected upon the highway or part thereof affected.

          (b) The authority of any improvement district to fix speed limits upon any highway or part thereof under the provisions of this section shall cease and terminate on the date which the county in which the district is located determines and declares and places in effect a county speed limit upon the same highway or part thereof.

          (c) Violations of any speed limit fixed pursuant to this section shall be prosecuted in the district court of Wabaunsee county.

          (d) For purposes of this section, the governing body of an improvement district specified in subsection (a), shall be deemed a 'local authority' for purposes of K.S.A. 8-1432 and 8-1560, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1996, ch. 15, § 1; Mar. 7.

8-1560b. Maximum and minimum speed limits fixed by Kansas turnpike authority.

          Notwithstanding the provisions of K.S.A. 8-1558, and amendments thereto, the Kansas turnpike authority, as defined in K.S.A. 68-2001, and amendments thereto, by resolution, may fix maximum and minimum speed limits for vehicles upon a highway or any part thereof under the authority's jurisdiction, which speed limits shall be effective when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected upon such highway or any part thereof.

History: L. 1996, ch. 15, § 2; Mar. 7.

8-1560c. Certain violations of maximum speed limits not construed as moving traffic violations.

          (a) Any conviction or forfeiture of bail or bond for violating a maximum posted or authorized speed limit of 30 miles per hour or more but not exceeding 54 miles per hour on any highway, by not more than six miles per hour, shall not be construed as a moving traffic violation for the purpose of K.S.A. 8-255, and amendments thereto.

          (b) Any conviction or forfeiture of bail or bond for violating the maximum posted or authorized speed limit of 55 miles per hour or more but not exceeding 75 miles per hour on any highway, by not more than 10 miles per hour, shall not be construed as a moving traffic violation for the purpose of K.S.A. 8-255, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1996, ch. 15, § 3; L. 1996, ch. 220, § 9; L. 2001, ch. 184, § 2; L. 2007, ch. 181, § 7; L. 2011, ch. 45, § 6; July 1.

8-1560d. Certain violations of maximum speed limits not to be considered for liability insurance.

          Convictions for violating a maximum posted speed limit of 55 miles per hour or more but not exceeding 75 miles per hour, by not more than 10 miles per hour in excess of such maximum speed limit, and or a maximum posted speed limit of 30 miles per hour or more but not exceeding 54 miles per hour, by not more than six miles per hour in excess of such maximum speed limit, shall not be reported by the division and shall not be considered by any insurance company in determining the rate charged for any automobile liability insurance policy or whether to cancel any such policy under the provisions of subsection (4)(c)(7) of K.S.A. 40-277, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1996, ch. 15, § 4; L. 1996, ch. 220, § 10; L. 2001, ch. 184, § 3; L. 2007, ch, 181, § 8; L. 2011, ch. 45, § 7; July 1.

8-1560e. Rural school zone speed limits.

          (a) The secretary of transportation shall work in conjunction with the board of education of any school district having a school located adjacent to a rural school zone to determine the appropriate maximum speed limit in and the appropriate signage for any such rural school zone.

          (b) As used in this section, "rural school zone" means that portion of highway located outside of any city which provides entrances and exits to any school located adjacent to such highway.

History: L. 2006, ch. 134, § 6; July 1.

8-1561. Minimum speed regulation.

          (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law.

          (b) Whenever the secretary of transportation or local authorities within their respective jurisdictions determine on the basis of an engineering and traffic investigation that slow speeds on any highway or part of a highway impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, the secretary or any such local authority may determine and declare a minimum speed limit below which no person shall drive a vehicle except when necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law and that limit shall be effective when posted upon appropriate fixed or variable signs.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1561; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 26; Aug. 15.

8-1562. Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles.

          No person shall operate any motor-driven cycle at any time mentioned in K.S.A. 8-1703 at a speed greater than thirty-five (35) miles per hour unless such motor-driven cycle is equipped with a head lamp or lamps which are adequate to reveal a person or vehicle at a distance of three hundred (300) feet ahead.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1562; July 1.

8-1563. Special speed limitations applicable to certain vehicles and portions of highways; powers of secretary and local authorities; violations, evidence of safe speed.

          (a) No person shall drive a vehicle which is towing a house trailer at a speed greater than a maximum of fifty-five (55) miles per hour.

          (b) No person shall drive any vehicle equipped with solid rubber tires at a speed greater than a maximum of ten (10) miles per hour.

          (c) No person shall drive a vehicle over any bridge or other elevated structure constituting a part of a highway at a speed which is greater than the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety to such bridge or structure, when such structure is signposted as provided in this section.

          (d) The secretary of transportation and local authorities on highways under their respective jurisdictions may conduct an investigation of any bridge or other elevated structure constituting a part of a highway, and if it shall thereupon find that such structure cannot with safety to itself withstand vehicles traveling at the speed otherwise permissible under this article, the secretary or local authority shall determine and declare the maximum speed of vehicles which such structure can safely withstand, and shall cause or permit suitable signs stating such maximum speed to be erected and maintained not less than one hundred (100) feet before each end of such structure.

          (e) Upon the trial of any person charged with a violation of this section, proof of said determination of the maximum speed by said secretary and the existence of said signs shall constitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety to such bridge or structure.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1563; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 12; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 27; Aug. 15.

8-1564. Violations of speed limits; requirements for complaint, summons and notice to appear; effect of maximum speed limits in civil action.

          (a) In every charge of violation of any speed regulation in this article, except charges of violations of K.S.A. 8-1557, the complaint, also the summons or notice to appear, shall specify the speed at which the defendant is alleged to have driven, also the speed limit applicable within the district or at the location.

          (b) The provisions of this article declaring maximum speed limitations shall not be construed to relieve the plaintiff in any action from the burden of proving negligence on the part of the defendant as the proximate cause of an accident.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1564; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 13; April 19.

8-1565. Racing on highways; misdemeanor.

          (a) No person shall drive any vehicle in any race, speed competition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of physical endurance, exhibition of speed or acceleration, or for the purpose of making a speed record, and no person shall in any manner participate in any such race, competition, contest, test or exhibition.

          (b) As used in this section, 'drag race' means the operation of two or more vehicles from a point side by side at accelerating speeds in a competitive attempt to out-distance each other, or the operation of one or more vehicles over a common selected course, from the same point to the same point, for the purpose of comparing the relative speeds or power of acceleration of such vehicle or vehicles within a certain distance or time limit.

          (c) As used in this section, 'racing' means the use of one or more vehicles in an attempt to out-gain, out-distance or prevent another vehicle from passing, to arrive at a given destination ahead of another vehicle or vehicles, or to test the physical stamina or endurance of drivers over long distance driving routes.

          (d) Violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1565; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 7; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1566. Reckless driving, penalties.

          (a) Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving.

          (b) Except as provided in K.S.A. 8-2,142, violation of this section is a misdemeanor. Upon a first conviction of a violation of this section, a person shall be sentenced to not less than five days nor more than 90 days imprisonment or fined not less than $25 nor more than $500, or both such fine and imprisonment. On a second or subsequent conviction of a violation of this section, a person shall be sentenced to not less than 10 days nor more than six months imprisonment, or fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or both such fine and imprisonment.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1566; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 8; L. 1989, ch. 38, § 41; Jan. 1, 1991.

8-1567. Driving under influence of alcohol or drugs; blood alcohol concentration; penalties.

          (a) Driving under the influence is operating or attempting to operate any vehicle within this state while:

          (1) The alcohol concentration in the person’s blood or breath as shown by any competent evidence, including other competent evidence, as defined in paragraph (1) of subsection (f) of K.S.A. 8-1013, and amendments thereto, is .08 or more;

          (2) the alcohol concentration in the person’s blood or breath, as measured within three hours of the time of operating or attempting to operate a vehicle, is .08 or more;

          (3) under the influence of alcohol to a degree that renders the person incapable of safely driving a vehicle;

          (4) under the influence of any drug or combination of drugs to a degree that renders the person incapable of safely driving a vehicle; or

          (5) under the influence of a combination of alcohol and any drug or drugs to a degree that renders the person incapable of safely driving a vehicle; or

          (b) (1) Driving under the influence is:

          (A) On a first conviction a class B, nonperson misdemeanor. The person convicted shall be sentenced to not less than 48 consecutive hours nor more than six months’ imprisonment, or in the court’s discretion 100 hours of public service, and fined not less than $500 $750 nor more than $1,000. The person convicted shall serve at least 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment or 100 hours of public service either before or as a condition of any grant of probation or suspension, reduction of sentence or parole. The court may place the person convicted under a house arrest program pursuant to K.S.A. 21-6609, and amendments thereto, to serve the remainder of the sentence only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment;

          (B) on a second conviction of a violation of this section, a person shall be guilty of a class A, nonperson misdemeanor. The person convicted shall be sentenced to not less than 90 days nor more than one year’s imprisonment and fined not less than$1,250 nor more than $1,750. The person convicted shall serve at least five consecutive days’ imprisonment before the person is granted probation, suspension or reduction of sentence or parole or is otherwise released. The five days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection may be served in a work release program only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment, provided such work release program requires such person to return to confinement at the end of each day in the work release program. The person convicted, if placed into a work release program, shall serve a minimum of 120 hours of confinement. Such 120 hours of confinement shall be a period of at least 48 consecutive hours of imprisonment followed by confinement hours at the end of and continuing to the beginning of the offender’s work day. The court may place the person convicted under a house arrest program pursuant to K.S.A. 21-6609, and amendments thereto, to serve the five days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment. The person convicted, if placed under house arrest, shall be monitored by an electronic monitoring device, which verifies the offender’s location. The offender shall serve a minimum of 120 hours of confinement within the boundaries of the offender’s residence. Any exceptions to remaining within the boundaries of the offender’s residence provided for in the house arrest agreement shall not be counted as part of the 120 hours;

          (C) on a third conviction a class A, nonperson misdemeanor, except as provided in subsection (b)(1)(D). The person convicted shall be sentenced to not less than 90 days nor more than one year’s imprisonment and fined not less than $1,750 nor more than $2,500. The person convicted shall not be eligible for release on probation, suspension or reduction of sentence or parole until the person has served at least 90 days’ imprisonment. The 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection may be served in a work release program only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment, provided such work release program requires such person to return to confinement at the end of each day in the work release program. The person convicted, if placed into a work release program, shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement. Such 2,160 hours of confinement shall be a period of at least 48 consecutive hours of imprisonment followed by confinement hours at the end of and continuing to the beginning of the offender’s work day. The court may place the person convicted under a house arrest program pursuant to 21-6609, and amendments thereto, to serve the 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment. The person convicted, if placed under house arrest, shall be monitored by an electronic monitoring device, which verifies the offender’s location. The offender shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement within the boundaries of the offender’s residence. Any exceptions to remaining within the boundaries of the offender’s residence provided for in the house arrest agreement shall not be counted as part of the 2,160 hours;

          (D) on a third conviction a nonperson felony if the person has a prior conviction which occurred within the preceding 10 years, not including any period of incarceration. The person convicted shall be sentenced to not less than 90 days nor more than one year’s imprisonment and fined not less than $1,500 $1,750 nor more than $2,500. The person convicted shall not be eligible for release on probation, suspension or reduction of sentence or parole until the person has served at least 90 days’ imprisonment. The 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection may be served in a work release program only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment, provided such work release program requires such person to return to confinement at the end of each day in the work release program. The person convicted, if placed into a work release program, shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement. Such 2,160 hours of confinement shall be a period of at least 48 consecutive hours of imprisonment followed by confinement hours at the end of and continuing to the beginning of the offender’s work day. The court may place the person convicted under a house arrest program pursuant to K.S.A. 21-6609, and amendments thereto, to serve the 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection only after such person has served 48 consecutive hours’ imprisonment. The person convicted, if placed under house arrest, shall be monitored by an electronic monitoring device, which verifies the offender’s location. The offender shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement within the boundaries of the offender’s residence. Any exceptions to remaining within the boundaries of the offender’s residence provided for in the house arrest agreement shall not be counted as part of the 2,160 hours; and

          (E) on the a fourth or subsequent conviction of a violation of this section, a person shall be guilty of a nonperson felony. The person convicted shall be sentenced to not less than 90 days nor more than one year’s imprisonment and fined $2,500. The person convicted shall not be eligible for release on probation, suspension or reduction of sentence or parole until the person has served at least 90 days’ imprisonment. The 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection may be served in a work release program only after such person has served 72 consecutive hours’ imprisonment, provided such work release program requires such person to return to confinement at the end of each day in the work release program. The person convicted, if placed into a work release program, shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement. Such 2,160 hours of confinement shall be a period of at least 72 consecutive hours of imprisonment followed by confinement hours at the end of and continuing to the beginning of the offender’s work day. The court may place the person convicted under a house arrest program pursuant to 21-6609, and amendments thereto, to serve the 90 days’ imprisonment mandated by this subsection only after such person has served 72 consecutive hours’ imprisonment. The person convicted, if placed under house arrest, shall be monitored by an electronic monitoring device, which verifies the offender’s location. The offender shall serve a minimum of 2,160 hours of confinement within the boundaries of the offender’s residence. Any exceptions to remaining within the boundaries of the offender’s residence provided for in the house arrest agreement shall not be counted as part of the 2,160 hours.

          (2) The court may order that the term of imprisonment imposed pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(D) or (b)(1)(E) be served in a state facility in the custody of the secretary of corrections in a facility designated by the secretary for the provision of substance abuse treatment pursuant to the provisions of K.S.A. 21-6804, and amendments thereto. The person shall remain imprisoned at the state facility only while participating in the substance abuse treatment program designated by the secretary and shall be returned to the custody of the sheriff for execution of the balance of the term of imprisonment upon completion of or the person’s discharge from the substance abuse treatment program. Custody of the person shall be returned to the sheriff for execution of the sentence imposed in the event the secretary of corrections determines: (A) That substance abuse treatment resources or the capacity of the facility designated by the secretary for the incarceration and treatment of the person is not available; (B) the person fails to meaningfully participate in the treatment program of the designated facility; (C) the person is disruptive to the security or operation of the designated facility; or (D) the medical or mental health condition of the person renders the person unsuitable for confinement at the designated facility. The determination by the secretary that the person either is not to be admitted into the designated facility or is to be transferred from the designated facility is not subject to review. The sheriff shall be responsible for all transportation expenses to and from the state correctional facility.

          (3) In addition, for any conviction pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(C), (b)(1)(D) or (b)(1)(E), at the time of the filing of the judgment form or journal entry as required by K.S.A. 21-6711, and amendments thereto, the court shall cause a certified copy to be sent to the officer having the offender in charge. The court shall determine whether the offender, upon release from imprisonment, shall be supervised by community correctional services or court services based upon the risk and needs of the offender. The risk and needs of the offender shall be determined by use of a risk assessment tool specified by the Kansas sentencing commission. The law enforcement agency maintaining custody and control of a defendant for imprisonment shall cause a certified copy of the judgment form or journal entry to be sent to the supervision office designated by the court and upon expiration of the term of imprisonment shall deliver the defendant to a location designated by the supervision office designated by the court. After the term of imprisonment imposed by the court, the person shall be placed on supervision to community correctional services or court services, as determined by the court, for a mandatory one-year period of supervision, which such period of supervision shall not be reduced. During such supervision, the person shall be required to participate in a multidisciplinary model of services for substance use disorders facilitated by a Kansas department for aging and disability services designated care coordination agency to include assessment and, if appropriate, referral to a community based substance use disorder treatment including recovery management and mental health counseling as needed. The multidisciplinary team shall include the designated care coordination agency, the supervision officer, the Kansas department for aging and disability services designated treatment provider and the offender. Any violation of the conditions of such supervision may subject such person to revocation of supervision and imprisonment in jail for the remainder of the period of imprisonment, the remainder of the supervision period, or any combination or portion thereof.

          (4) In addition, pursuant to subsection (b)(1)(A) or (b)(1)(B), prior to sentencing for any conviction, the court shall order the person to participate in an alcohol and drug evaluation conducted by a provider in accordance with K.S.A. 8-1008, and amendments thereto. The person shall be required to follow any recommendation made by the provider after such evaluation, unless otherwise ordered by the court.

          (c) Any person convicted of violating this section or an ordinance which prohibits the acts that this section prohibits who had one or more children under the age of 14 years in the vehicle at the time of the offense shall have such person’s punishment enhanced by one month of imprisonment. This imprisonment must be served consecutively to any other minimum mandatory penalty imposed for a violation of this section or an ordinance which prohibits the acts that this section prohibits. Any enhanced penalty imposed shall not exceed the maximum sentence allowable by law. During the service of the enhanced penalty, the judge may order the person on house arrest, work release or other conditional release.

          (d) If a person is charged with a violation of this section involving drugs, the fact that the person is or has been entitled to use the drug under the laws of this state shall not constitute a defense against the charge.

          (e) The court may establish the terms and time for payment of any fines, fees, assessments and costs imposed pursuant to this section. Any assessment and costs shall be required to be paid not later than 90 days after imposed, and any remainder of the fine shall be paid prior to the final release of the defendant by the court.

          (f) In lieu of payment of a fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may order that the person perform community service specified by the court. The person shall receive a credit on the fine imposed in an amount equal to $5 for each full hour spent by the person in the specified community service. The community service ordered by the court shall be required to be performed not later than one year after the fine is imposed or by an earlier date specified by the court. If by the required date the person performs an insufficient amount of community service to reduce to zero the portion of the fine required to be paid by the person, the remaining balance of the fine shall become due on that date.

          (g) Prior to filing a complaint alleging a violation of this section, a prosecutor shall request and shall receive from the: (1) Division a record of all prior convictions obtained against such person for any violations of any of the motor vehicle laws of this state, and (2) Kansas bureau of investigation central repository all criminal history record information concerning such person.

          (h) The court shall electronically report every conviction of a violation of this section and every diversion agreement entered into in lieu of further criminal proceedings or on a complaint alleging a violation of this section to the division. Prior to sentencing under the provisions of this section, the court shall request and shall receive from the division a record of all prior convictions obtained against such person for any violations of any of the motor vehicle laws of this state.

          (i) For the purpose of determining whether a conviction is a first, second, third, fourth or subsequent conviction in sentencing under this section:

          (1) Convictions for a violation of this section, or a violation of an ordinance of any city or resolution of any county which prohibits the acts that this section prohibits, or entering into a diversion agreement in lieu of further criminal proceedings on a complaint alleging any such violations, shall be taken into account, but only convictions or diversions occurring on or after July 1, 2001. Nothing in this provision shall be construed as preventing any court from considering any convictions or diversions occurring during the person’s lifetime in determining the sentence to be imposed within the limits provided for a first, second, third, fourth or subsequent offense;

          (2) any convictions for a violation of the following sections occurring during a person’s lifetime shall be taken into account: (A) Refusing to submit to a test to determine the presence of alcohol or drugs, K.S.A. 8-1025, and amendments thereto; (B) driving a commercial motor vehicle under the influence, K.S.A. 8-2,144, and amendments thereto; (C) operating a vessel under the influence of alcohol or drugs, K.S.A. 32-1131, and amendments thereto; (D) involuntary manslaughter while driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, K.S.A. 21-3442, prior to its repeal, or subsection (a)(3) of K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 21-5405, and amendments thereto; (E) aggravated battery as described in subsection (b)(3) of K.S.A. 2012 Supp. 21-5413, and amendments thereto; and (F) aggravated vehicular homicide, K.S.A. 21-3405a, prior to its repeal, or vehicular battery, K.S.A. 21-3405b, prior to its repeal, if the crime was committed while committing a violation of K.S.A. 8-1567, and amend- ments thereto;

          (3) "conviction" includes: (A) Entering into a diversion agreement in lieu of further criminal proceedings on a complaint alleging a violation of a crime described in subsection (i)(2); (B) conviction of a violation of an ordinance of a city in this state, a resolution of a county in this state or any law of another state which would constitute a crime described in subsection (i)(1) or (i)(2); and (C) receiving punishment under the uniform code of military justice or Kansas code of military justice for an act which was committed on a military reservation and which would constitute a crime described in subsection (i)(1) or (i)(2) if committed off a military reservation in this state;

          (4) multiple convictions of any crime described in subsection (i)(1) or (i)(2) arising from the same arrest shall only be counted as one conviction;

          (5) it is irrelevant whether an offense occurred before or after conviction for a previous offense; and

          (6) a person may enter into a diversion agreement in lieu of further criminal proceedings for a violation of this section, and amendments thereto, or an ordinance which prohibits the acts of this section, and amendments thereto, only once during the person’s lifetime.

          (j) Upon conviction of a person of a violation of this section or a violation of a city ordinance or county resolution prohibiting the acts prohibited by this section, the division, upon receiving a report of conviction, shall suspend, restrict or suspend and restrict the person’s driving privileges as provided by K.S.A. 8-1014, and amendments thereto.

          (k) (1) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as preventing any city from enacting ordinances, or any county from adopting resolutions, declaring acts prohibited or made unlawful by this act as unlawful or prohibited in such city or county and prescribing penalties for violation thereof.

          (2) The minimum penalty prescribed by any such ordinance or resolution shall not be less than the minimum penalty prescribed by this act section for the same violation, and the maximum penalty in any such ordinance or resolution shall not exceed the maximum penalty prescribed for the same violation.

          (3) On and after July 1, 2007, and retroactive for ordinance violations committed on or after July 1, 2006, an ordinance may grant to a municipal court jurisdiction over a violation of such ordinance which is concurrent with the jurisdiction of the district court over a violation of this section, notwithstanding that the elements of such ordinance violation are the same as the elements of a violation of this section that would constitute, and be punished as, a felony.

          (4) Any such ordinance or resolution shall authorize the court to order that the convicted person pay restitution to any victim who suffered loss due to the violation for which the person was convicted.

          (l) (1) Upon the filing of a complaint, citation or notice to appear alleging a person has violated a city ordinance prohibiting the acts prohibited by this section, and prior to conviction thereof, a city attorney shall request and shall receive from the: (A) Division a record of all prior convictions obtained against such person for any violations of any of the motor vehicle laws of this state and (B) Kansas bureau of investigation central repository all criminal history record information concerning such person.

          (2) If the elements of such ordinance violation are the same as the elements of a violation of this section that would constitute, and be punished as, a felony, the city attorney shall refer the violation to the appropriate county or district attorney for prosecution.

          (m) No plea bargaining agreement shall be entered into nor shall any judge approve a plea bargaining agreement entered into for the purpose of permitting a person charged with a violation of this section, or a violation of any ordinance of a city or resolution of any county in this state which prohibits the acts prohibited by this section, to avoid the mandatory penalties established by this section or by the ordinance. For the purpose of this subsection, entering into a diversion agreement pursuant to K.S.A. 12-4413 et seq. or 22-2906 et seq., and amendments thereto, shall not constitute plea bargaining.

          (n) The alternatives set out in subsections (a)(1), (a)(2) and (a)(3) may be pleaded in the alternative, and the state, city or county, but shall not be required to, may elect one or two of the three prior to submission of the case to the fact finder.

          (o) As used in this section:

          (1) "Alcohol concentration" means the number of grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or per 210 liters of breath.;

          (2) "imprisonment" shall include any restrained environment in which the court and law enforcement agency intend to retain custody and control of a defendant and such environment has been approved by the board of county commissioners or the governing body of a city.; and

          (3) "drug" includes toxic vapors as such term is defined in K.S.A. 2010 Supp. 21-36a12, and amendments thereto.

          (p) (1) The amount of the increase in fines as specified in this section shall be remitted by the clerk of the district court to the state treasurer in accordance with the provisions of K.S.A. 75-4215, and amendments thereto. Upon receipt of remittance of the increase provided in this act, the state treasurer shall deposit the entire amount in the state treasury and the state treasurer shall credit 50% to the community alcoholism and intoxication programs fund and 50% to the department of corrections alcohol and drug abuse treatment fund, which is hereby created in the state treasury.

          (2) On and after July 1, 2011, the amount of $250 from each fine imposed pursuant to this section shall be remitted by the clerk of the district court to the state treasurer in accordance with the provisions of K.S.A. 75-4215, and amendments thereto. Upon receipt of such remittance, the state treasurer shall credit the entire amount to the community corrections supervision fund established by section 3, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1567; L. 1976, ch. 50, § 1; L. 1982, ch. 144, § 5; L. 1983, ch. 37, § 2; L. 1984, ch. 37, § 4; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 9; L. 1985, ch. 48, § 9; L. 1985, ch. 50, § 5; L. 1988, ch. 48, § 6; L. 1988, ch. 47, § 17; L. 1989, ch. 92, § 16; L. 1990, ch. 44, § 6; L. 1990, ch. 47, § 3; L. 1991, ch. 36, § 20; L. 1992, ch. 298, § 1; L. 1993, ch. 259, § 8; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 270; L. 1994, ch. 291, § 2; L. 2001, ch. 200, § 14; L. 2002, Ch. 166, § 2; L. 2003, ch. 100, § 1; L. 2007, ch. 168 § 2; L. 2007, ch. 181, § 9; L. 2008, ch. 170, § 4; L. 2009, ch. 32, § 19; L. 2009, ch. 107, § 5; L. 2009, ch. 107, § 6; L. 2009, ch. 143, § 3, L. 2010, ch. 153, § 3; L. 2010, ch. 155, 1; L. 2011, ch. 30, § 95; L. 2011, ch. 105, § 19; L. 2012, ch. 172, § 20; L. 2013, ch. 122, § 6; L. 2014, ch. 115, § 3; July 1.

8-1567a. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs by any person less than 21 years of age; blood alcohol concentration; penalties.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person less than 21 years of age to operate or attempt to operate a vehicle in this state with a breath or blood alcohol content of .02 or greater.

          (b) Whenever a law enforcement officer determines that a breath or blood alcohol test is to be required of a person less than 21 years of age pursuant to K.S.A. 8-1001 or K.S.A.. 8-2,142 and amendments thereto, in addition to any other notices required by law, the law enforcement officer shall provide written and oral notice that: (1) It is unlawful for any person less than 21 years of age to operate or attempt to operate a vehicle in this state with a breath or blood alcohol content of .02 or greater; and (2) if the person is less than 21 years of age at the time of the test request and submits to and completes the test or tests and the test results show an alcohol concentration of .02 or greater, but less than .08, on the person’s first occurrence, the person's driving privileges will be suspended for 30 days and on the person’s second or subsequent occurrence, the person’s driving privileges shall be suspended for one year.

          (c) Any suspension and restriction of driving privileges pursuant to this section shall be in addition to any disqualification from driving a commercial motor vehicle pursuant to K.S.A. 8-2,142 and amendments thereto.

          (d) Whenever a breath or blood alcohol test is requested pursuant to K.S.A. 8-1001 and amendments thereto, from a person less than 21 years of age, and results in a test result of .02 or greater, but less than .08, a law enforcement officer's certification under this section shall be prepared. The certification required by this section shall be signed by one or more officers to certify that:

          (1)(A) There existed reasonable grounds to believe the person was operating a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or both, or to believe that the person had been driving a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in K.S.A. 8-2,128 and amendments thereto, while having alcohol or other drugs in such person's system or was under the age of 21 years and was operating or attempting to operate a vehicle while having alcohol or other drugs in such person’s system;; (B) the person had been placed under arrest, was in custody or had been involved in a vehicle accident or collision; (C) a law enforcement officer had presented the person with the oral and written notice required by K.S.A. 8-1001 and amendments thereto, and the oral and written notice required by this section; (D) that the person was less than 21 years of age at the time of the test request; and (E) the result of the test showed that the person had an alcohol concentration of .02 or greater in such person's blood or breath.

          (2) With regard to a breath test, in addition to those matters required to be certified under subsection (d)(1), that: (A) The testing equipment used was certified by the Kansas department of health and environment; (B) the testing procedures used were in accordance with the requirements set out by the Kansas department of health and environment; and (C) the person who operated the testing equipment was certified by the Kansas department of health and environment to operate such equipment.

          (e) If a hearing is requested as a result of a law enforcement officer's certification under this section, the scope of the hearing shall be limited to whether: (1) A law enforcement officer had reasonable grounds to believe the person was operating a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or both, or to believe that the person had been driving a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in K.S.A. 8-2,128 and amendments thereto, while having alcohol or other drugs in such person's system or was under the age of 21 years and was operating or attempting to operate a vehicle while having alcohol or other drugs in such person’s system;; (2) the person had been placed under arrest, was in custody or was involved in a motor vehicle accident or collision resulting in property damage, personal injury or death; (3) a law enforcement officer had presented the person with the oral and written notice required by K.S.A. 8-1001 and amendments thereto, and the oral and written notice required by this section; (4) the testing equipment used was reliable; (5) the person who operated the testing equipment was qualified; (6) the testing procedures used were reliable; (7) the test result determined that the person had an alcohol concentration of .02 or greater in such person's blood or breath; (8) the person was operating a vehicle; and (9) the person was less than 21 years of age at the time a test was requested.

          (f) If a person less than 21 years of age submits to a breath or blood alcohol test requested pursuant to K.S.A. 8-1001 or K.S.A. 8-2,142 and amendments thereto, and produces a test result of .02 or greater, but less than .08, on the person’s first occurrence, the person’s driving privileges shall be suspended for 30 days and then restricted as provided by K.S.A. 8-1015, and amendments thereto, for an additional 330 days, and on the person’s second or subsequent occurrence, the person's driving privileges shall be suspended for one year.

          (g) Except where there is a conflict between this section and K.S.A. 8-1001 and 8-1002 and amendments thereto, the provisions of K.S.A. 8-1001 and 8-1002 and amendments thereto, shall be applicable to proceedings under this section.

          (h) Any determination under this section that a person less than 21 years of age had a test result of .02 or greater, but less than .08, and any resulting administrative action upon the person's driving privileges, upon the first occurrence of such test result and administrative action, shall not be considered by any insurance company in determining the rate charged for any automobile liability insurance policy or whether to cancel any such policy under the provisions of subsection (4)(a) of K.S.A. 40-277 and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1996, ch. 216, § 1;L. 1999, ch. 169, § 2; L. 2001, ch. 200, § 8; L. 2013, ch. 122, § 7; July 1.

8-1568. Fleeing or attempting to elude a police officer; penalties.

          (a) (1) Any driver of a motor vehicle who willfully fails or refuses to bring such driver's vehicle to a stop, for a pursuing police vehicle or police bicycle, when given visual or audible signal to bring the vehicle to a stop, shall be guilty as provided by subsection (c)(1).

          (2) Any driver of a motor vehicle who willfully otherwise flees or attempts to elude a pursuing police vehicle or police bicycle, when given visual or audible signal to bring the vehicle to a stop, shall be guilty as provided by subsection (c)(1).

          (3) It shall be an affirmative defense to any prosecution under subsection (a)(1) that the driver’s conduct in violation of such paragraph was caused by such driver’s reasonable belief that the vehicle or bicycle pursuing such driver’s vehicle is not a police vehicle or police bicycle.

          (b) Any driver of a motor vehicle who willfully fails or refuses to bring such driver’s vehicle to a stop, or who otherwise flees or attempts to elude a pursuing police vehicle or police bicycle, when given visual or audible signal to bring the vehicle to a stop, and who: (1) Commits any of the following during a police pursuit: (A) Fails to stop for a police road block; (B) drives around tire deflating devices placed by a police officer; (C) engages in reckless driving as defined by K.S.A. 8-1566 and amendments thereto; (D) is involved in any motor vehicle accident or intentionally causes damage to property; or (E) commits five or more moving violations; or

          (2) is attempting to elude capture for the commission of any felony, shall be guilty as provided in subsection (c)(2).

          (c) (1) Violation of subsection (a), upon a:

          (A) first conviction, is a class B nonperson misdemeanor;

          (B) second conviction, is a class A nonperson misdemeanor, or;

          (C) third or subsequent conviction, is a severity level 9, person felony.

          (2) Violation of subsection (b) is a severity level 9, person felony.

          (d) The signal given by the police officer may be by hand, voice, emergency light or siren:

          (1) If the officer giving such signal is within or upon an official police vehicle or police bicycle at the time the signal is given, the vehicle or bicycle shall be appropriately marked showing it to be an official police vehicle or police bicycle; or

          (2) if the officer giving such signal is not utilizing an official police vehicle or police bicycle at the time the signal is given, the officer shall be in uniform, prominently displaying such officer’s badge of office at the time the signal is given.

          (e) (1) For the purpose of this section 'conviction' means a final conviction without regard whether sentence was suspended or probation granted after such conviction. Forfeiture of bail, bond or collateral deposited to secure a defendant's appearance in court, which forfeiture has not been vacated, shall be equivalent to a conviction. For the purpose of determining whether a conviction is a first, second, third or subsequent conviction in sentencing under this section it is irrelevant whether an offense occurred before or after conviction for a previous offense.

          (2) "Appropriately marked"official police vehicle or police bicycle shall include, but not be limited to, any police vehicle or bicycle equipped with functional emergency lights or siren or both and which the emergency lights or siren or both have been activated for the purpose of signaling a driver to stop a motor vehicle.

          (f) The division of vehicles of the department of revenue shall promote public awareness of the provisions of this section when persons apply for or renew such person's driver's license.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1568; L. 1981, ch. 42, § 2; L. 1992, ch. 239, § 29; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 4; L. 1994, ch. 291, § 3; L. 1996, ch. 180, § 2; L. 1998, ch. 145, § 1; L. 2009, ch. 132, § 2; L. 2014, ch. 76, § 1; July 1.

8-1569. Stopping, standing or parking outside of business or residence district.

          (a) Outside a business or residence district no person shall stop, park or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the roadway when it is practicable to stop, park or so leave such vehicle off the roadway, but in every event an unobstructed width of the highway opposite a standing vehicle shall be left for the free passage of other vehicles and a clear view of such stopped vehicle shall be available from a distance of two hundred (200) feet in each direction upon such highway.

          (b) This section, K.S.A. 8-1571 and K.S.A. 8-1572 shall not apply to the driver of any vehicle which is disabled in such manner and to such extent that it is impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving the vehicle in such position.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1569; July 1.

8-1570. Authority of police officer to remove vehicle in violation of 8-1569 from highway.

          (a) Whenever any police officer finds a vehicle in violation of any of the provisions of K.S.A. 8-1569, such officer is hereby authorized to move such vehicle, or require the driver or other person in charge of the vehicle to move the same, to a position off the roadway.

          (b) Any police officer is hereby authorized to remove or cause to be removed to a place of safety any unattended vehicle illegally left standing upon any highway, bridge, causeway, or in any tunnel, in such position or under such circumstances as to obstruct the normal movement of traffic.

          (c) Any police officer is hereby authorized to remove or cause to be removed to the nearest garage or other place of safety any vehicle found upon a highway when:

          (1) Report has been made that such vehicle has been stolen or taken without the consent of its owner;

          (2) The person or persons in charge of such vehicle are unable to provide for its custody or removal; or

          (3) When the person driving or in control of such vehicle is arrested for an alleged offense for which the officer is required by law to take the person arrested before a judge of the district court without unnecessary delay.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1570; L. 1976, ch. 145, § 31; Jan. 10, 1977.

8-1571. Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified places.

          (a) Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic-control device, no person shall:

          (1) Stop, stand or park a vehicle:

          (i) On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street;

          (ii) On a sidewalk;

          (iii) Within an intersection;

          (iv) On a crosswalk;

          (v) Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within thirty (30) feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone, unless a different length is indicated by signs or markings;

          (vi) Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing or parking would obstruct traffic;

          (vii) Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel;

          (viii) On any railroad tracks;

          (ix) On any controlled-access highway;

          (x) In the area between roadways of a divided highway, including crossovers; or

          (xi) At any place where official signs prohibit stopping.

          (2) Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily to pick up or discharge a passenger or passengers:

          (i) In front of a public or private driveway;

          (ii) Within fifteen (15) feet of a fire hydrant;

          (iii) Within twenty (20) feet of a crosswalk at an intersection;

          (iv) Within thirty (30) feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, stop sign, yield sign or traffic-control signal located at the side of a roadway;

          (v) Within twenty (20) feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any fire station within seventy-five (75) feet of said entrance, when properly signposted; or

          (vi) At any place where official signs prohibit standing.

          (3) Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading property or passengers:

          (i) Within fifty (50) feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing; or

          (ii) At any place where official signs prohibit parking.

          (b) No person shall move a vehicle not lawfully under his or her control into any such prohibited area or away from a curb such a distance as is unlawful.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1571; July 1.

8-1572. Additional parking regulations; powers of secretary and local authorities.

          (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a two-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels parallel to and within twelve (12) inches of the right-hand curb or as close as practicable to the right edge of the right-hand shoulder.

          (b) Except when otherwise provided by local ordinance, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a one-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked parallel to the curb or edge of the roadway, in the direction of authorized traffic movement, with its right-hand wheels within twelve (12) inches of the right-hand curb or as close as practicable to the right edge of the right-hand shoulder, or with its left-hand wheels within twelve (12) inches of the left-hand curb or as close as practicable to the left edge of the left-hand shoulder.

          (c) Local authorities may permit angle parking on any roadway, except that angle parking shall not be permitted on any federal-aid or state highway, unless the secretary of transportation has determined that the roadway is of sufficient width to permit angle parking without interfering with the free movement of traffic.

          (d) The secretary of transportation with respect to highways under the secretary's jurisdiction may place official traffic-control devices prohibiting, limiting or restricting the stopping, standing or parking of vehicles on any highway where, in the secretary's opinion, such stopping, standing or parking is dangerous to those using the highway or where the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles would unduly interfere with the free movement of traffic thereon. No person shall stop, stand or park any vehicle in violation of the restrictions indicated by such devices.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1572; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 28; Aug. 15.

8-1573. Unattended motor vehicle.

          (a) No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, locking the ignition, removing the key from the ignition, effectively setting the brake thereon and, when standing upon any grade, turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the highway.

          (b) For the purpose of this section, unattended shall not be construed to mean a motor vehicle with an engine that has been activated by a remote starter system, when the motor vehicle is locked and when the ignition keys are not in the motor vehicle.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1573; L. 2003, ch. 56, § 1 (HB 2120); July 1.

8-1574. Limitations on backing vehicle.

          (a) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless such movement can be made with safety and without interfering with other traffic.

          (b) The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same upon any shoulder or roadway of any controlled-access highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1574; July 1.

8-1575. Driving upon sidewalk.

          No person shall drive any vehicle upon a sidewalk or sidewalk area except upon a permanent or duly authorized temporary driveway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1575; July 1.

8-1576. Driving vehicle prohibited when driver's view or driving mechanism obstructed.

          (a) No person shall drive a vehicle when it is so loaded, or when there are in the front seat such a number of persons, exceeding three (3), as to obstruct the view of the driver to the front or sides of the vehicle or as to interfere with the driver's control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle.

          (b) No passenger in a vehicle shall ride in such position as to interfere with the driver's view ahead or to the sides, or to interfere with the driver's control over the driving mechanism of the vehicle.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1576; July 1.

8-1577. Opening and closing vehicle doors.

          No person shall open the door of a motor vehicle on the side available to moving traffic unless and until it is reasonably safe to do so, and can be done without interfering with the movement of other traffic, nor shall any person leave a door open on the side of a vehicle available to moving traffic for a period of time longer than necessary to load or unload passengers.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1577; July 1.

8-1578. Riding in house trailer or mobile or manufactured home prohibited.

          No person or persons shall occupy a house trailer, manufactured home, as defined in subsection (a) of K.S.A. 1991 Supp. 58-4202, or mobile home, as defined in subsection (b) of K.S.A. 1991 Supp. 58-4202 while it is being moved upon a public highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1578; L. 1991, ch. 33, § 46; July 1.

8-1578a. Riding on vehicle prohibited, when; exceptions.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person under the age of 14 years to ride on any vehicle or upon any portion thereof not designed or intended for use of passengers when the vehicle is in motion.

          (b) It shall be unlawful for the operator of any vehicle to allow any person under the age of 14 years to ride on any vehicle or upon any portion thereof not designed or intended for the use of passengers when the vehicle is in motion.

          (c) This section shall not apply to:

          (1) An employee under the age of 14 years engaged in the necessary discharge of the employee's duty within truck bodies in space intended for merchandise or cargo; or

          (2) when the vehicle is being operated in parades, caravans or exhibitions which are officially authorized or otherwise permitted by law.

          (d) The provisions of subsections (a) and (b) shall apply only when a vehicle is being operated within the corporate limits of a city or on the state highway system.

History: L. 1992, ch. 317, § 5; July 1.

8-1579. Driving in defiles or canyons or on steep grades.

          The driver of a motor vehicle traveling through defiles or canyons or on highways with steep grades shall hold such motor vehicle under control and as near the right-hand edge of the roadway as reasonably possible and, except when driving entirely to the right of the center of the roadway, shall give audible warning with the horn of such motor vehicle upon approaching any curve where the view is obstructed within a distance of two hundred (200) feet along the highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1579; July 1.

8-1580. Coasting prohibited.

          (a) The driver of any motor vehicle when traveling upon a down grade shall not coast with the gears or transmission of such vehicle in neutral.

          (b) The driver of a truck or bus when traveling upon a down grade shall not coast with the clutch disengaged.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1580; July 1.

8-1581. Following fire apparatus prohibited.

          The driver of any vehicle other than one on official business shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a fire alarm closer than five hundred (500) feet or stop such vehicle within five hundred (500) feet of any fire apparatus stopped in answer to a fire alarm.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1581; July 1.

8-1582. Driving over fire hose prohibited.

          No vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a fire department when laid down on any street, private road or driveway to be used at any fire or alarm of fire, without the consent of the fire department official in command.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1582; July 1.

8-1583. Putting glass, etc., on highway prohibited.

          (a) No person shall throw or deposit upon any highway any glass bottle, glass, nails, tacks, wire, cans or any other substance likely to injure any person, animal or vehicle upon such highway.

          (b) Any person who drops, or permits to be dropped or thrown, upon any highway any destructive or injurious material shall immediately remove the same or cause it to be removed.

          (c) Any person removing a wrecked or damaged vehicle from a highway shall remove any glass or other injurious substance dropped upon the highway from such vehicle.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1583; July 1.

8-1584. Restrictions on driving into intersection or crosswalk or onto railroad grade crossing.

          No driver shall enter an intersection or a marked crosswalk or drive onto any railroad grade crossing unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection, crosswalk or railroad grade crossing to accommodate the vehicle he or she is operating without obstructing the passage of other vehicles, pedestrians or railroad trains notwithstanding any traffic-control signal indication to proceed.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1584; July 1.

8-1585. Limitations on operation of snowmobile.

          No person shall operate a snowmobile on any controlled-access highway. No person shall operate a snowmobile on any other highway, except when crossing the highway at a right angle, or when use of the highway by other motor vehicles is impossible because of snow, or when such operation is authorized by the authority having jurisdiction over the highway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1585; July 1.

8-1586. Unlawful acts; application of regulations.

          (a) Violation of any provision of K.S.A. 8-1587 to 8-1592, inclusive, and amendments thereto, is a traffic infraction.

          (b) The parent of any child and the guardian of any ward shall not authorize or knowingly permit any such child or ward to violate any of the provisions of K.S.A. 8-1587 to 8-1592, inclusive.

          (c) The provisions of K.S.A. 8-1587 to 8-1592, inclusive, which are applicable to bicycles shall apply whenever a bicycle is operated upon any highway or upon any path set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles, subject to those exceptions stated herein.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1586; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 14; L. 1984, ch. 39, § 10; Jan. 1, 1985.

8-1587. Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles.

          Every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle by this act, except as otherwise provided in K.S.A. 8-1586 to 8-1592, inclusive, and except as to those provisions of this act which by their nature can have no application.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1587; L. 1975, ch. 39, § 15; April 19.

8-1588. Riding on bicycles.

          (a) A person propelling a bicycle shall not ride other than upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached thereto.

          (b) No bicycle shall be used to carry more persons at one time than the number for which it is designed and equipped.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1588; July 1.

8-1589. Same; clinging to other vehicles prohibited.

          No person riding upon any bicycle, coaster, roller skates, sled or toy vehicle shall attach the same, himself or herself to any vehicle upon a roadway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1589; July 1.

8-1590. Riding on bicycles or mopeds; riding on roadways and bicycle paths.

          (a) Every person operating a bicycle or a moped upon a roadway at less than the normal speed of traffic at the time and place and under the conditions then existing shall ride as near to the right side of the roadway as practicable, except under any of the following situations when: (1) Overtaking and passing another bicycle or vehicle proceeding in the same direction; (2) preparing for a left turn at an intersection or into a private road or driveway; or (3) reasonably necessary to avoid conditions including, but not limited to, fixed or moving objects, parked or moving bicycles, bicycles, pedestrians, animals, surface hazards or narrow width lanes that make it unsafe to continue along the right-hand edge of the roadway.

          (b) Any person operating a bicycle or a moped upon a one-way highway with two or more marked traffic lanes may ride as near to the left side of the roadway as practicable.

          (c) Persons riding bicycles upon a roadway shall not ride more than two abreast, except on paths or parts of roadways set aside for the exclusive use of bicycles.

          (d) Wherever a usable path for bicycles has been provided adjacent to a roadway, bicycle riders shall use such path and shall not use the roadway.

          (e) For purposes of this section, 'narrow width lane' means a lane that is too narrow for a bicycle and a vehicle to travel safely side-by-side within the lane.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1590; L. 1995, ch. 188, § 7; July 1.

8-1591. Same; carrying articles.

          No person operating a bicycle shall carry any package, bundle or article which prevents the driver from keeping at least one (1) hand upon the handlebars.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1591; July 1.

8-1592. Lamps, brakes and other equipment on bicycles.

          (a) Every bicycle when in use at nighttime shall be equipped with a lamp on the front which shall emit a white light visible from a distance of at least five hundred (500) feet to the front and with a red reflector on the rear of a type approved by the secretary of transportation which shall be visible from all distances from one hundred (100) feet to six hundred (600) feet to the rear when directly in front of lawful lower beams of head lamps on a motor vehicle. A lamp emitting a red light visible from a distance of five hundred (500) feet to the rear may be used in addition to the red reflector.

          (b) Every bicycle shall be equipped with a brake which will enable the operator to make the braked wheels skid on dry, level, clean pavement.

          (c) No person shall sell a pedal for use on a bicycle, unless such pedal is equipped with a reflector of a type approved by the secretary of transportation which is visible from the front and rear of the bicycle to which it is attached during darkness from a distance of two hundred (200) feet, and no person shall sell a new bicycle, unless it is equipped with pedals meeting the requirements of this subsection.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1592; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 29; Aug. 15.

8-1592a. Application of 8-1586 to 8-1592 to motorized bicycles.

          The provisions of K.S.A. 8-1586 to 8-1592, inclusive, shall be applicable to motorized bicycles, and every person operating a motorized bicycle shall be subject to the provisions thereof.

History: L. 1976, ch. 42, § 6; Jan. 1, 1977.

8-1592b. Electric-assisted bicycles; traffic law application; no registration or driver's license required.

          Vehicle registration and driver's license shall not be required for operation of an electric-assisted bicycle. Traffic regulations applicable to bicycles shall apply to electric-assisted bicycles, except tricycles with no brake horsepower.

History: L. 1980, ch. 42, § 4; L. 2000 ch. 179, § 21; July 1.

8-1593. Rights and duties of persons riding motorcycles.

          Every person operating a motorcycle shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle under this act, except as provided in K.S.A. 8-1594 to 8-1598, inclusive, of this article and except as to those provisions of this act which by their nature can have no application.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1593; July 1.

8-1594. Operation of motorcycles.

          (a) A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle, unless such motorcycle is designed to carry more than one person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle at the rear or side of the operator.

          (b) A person shall ride upon a motorcycle only while sitting astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the motorcycle. This subsection shall not apply to any person riding within an autocycle.

          (c) No person shall operate a motorcycle while carrying any package, bundle, or other article which prevents such person from keeping both hands on the handlebars.

          (d) No operator shall carry any person, nor shall any person ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle or the view of the operator.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1594; L. 2015, ch. 48, § 6; May 14.

8-1595. Same; roadways laned for traffic.

          (a) All motorcycles are entitled to full use of a lane, and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any motorcycle of the full use of a lane. This subsection shall not apply to motorcycles operated two (2) abreast in a single lane.

          (b) The operator of a motorcycle shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken.

          (c) No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.

          (d) Motorcycles shall not be operated more than two (2) abreast in a single lane.

          (e) Subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1595; July 1.

8-1596. Same; clinging to other vehicles prohibited.

          No person riding upon a motorcycle shall attach himself, herself or the motorcycle to any other vehicle on a roadway.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1596; July 1.

8-1597. Same; equipment on motorcycles for passengers.

          Any motorcycle carrying a passenger, other than in a sidecar or enclosed cab, shall be equipped with a seat and footrests for such passenger.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1597; L. 2006, ch. 219, § 1; July 1.

8-1598. Operation of motorcycles; equipment required for operators and riders.

          (a) No person under the age of 18 years shall operate or ride upon a motorcycle or a motorized bicycle, unless wearing a helmet which complies with minimum guidelines established by the national highway traffic safety administration pursuant to the national traffic and motor vehicle safety act of 1966 for helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users.

          (b) No person shall allow or permit any person under the age of 18 years to: (1) Operate a motorcycle or motorized bicycle or to ride as a passenger upon a motorcycle or motorized bicycle without being in compliance with the provisions of subsection (a); or (2) operate a motorcycle or to ride as a passenger upon a motorcycle without being in compliance with the provisions of subsection (c).

          (c) (1) No person shall operate a motorcycle unless such person is wearing an eye-protective device which shall consist of protective glasses, goggles or transparent face shields which are shatter proof and impact resistant, except when the motorcycle is equipped with a windscreen which has a minimum height of 10 inches measured from the center of the handlebars.

          (2) No person under the age of 18 years shall ride as a passenger on a motorcycle unless such person is wearing an eye-protective device which shall consist of protective glasses, goggles or transparent face shields which are shatter proof and impact resistant.

          (d) This section shall not apply to persons riding within an enclosed cab, an autocycle, or on a golf cart, nor shall it apply to any person operating or riding any industrial or cargo-type vehicle having three wheels and commonly known as a truckster.

History: L. 1974, ch. 33, § 8-1598; L. 1975, ch. 427, § 30; L. 1976, ch. 51, § 1; L. 1979, ch. 41, § 1; L. 1982, ch. 36, § 1; L. 1997, ch. 80, § 2; L. 2010, ch. 151, § 3; L. 2015, ch. 48, § 4; May 14.

8-1599. Transportation of liquor in opened containers unlawful; exceptions; penalty; report of prior convictions; city or county not prohibited from enacting comparable ordinance or resolution, requirements.

          (a) As used in this section, 'alcoholic beverage' means any alcoholic liquor, as defined by K.S.A. 41-102 and amendments thereto, or any cereal malt beverage, as defined by K.S.A. 41-2701 and amendments thereto.

          (b) No person shall transport in any vehicle upon a highway or street any alcoholic beverage unless such beverage is:

          (1) In the original unopened package or container, the seal of which has not been broken and from which the original cap, cork or other means of closure has not been removed;

          (2) (A) in the locked rear trunk or rear compartment, or any locked outside compartment which is not accessible to any person in the vehicle while it is in motion; or

          (B) if a motor vehicle is not equipped with a trunk, behind the last upright seat or in an area not normally occupied by the driver or a passenger; or

          (3) in the exclusive possession of a passenger in a vehicle which is a recreational vehicle, as defined by K.S.A. 75-1212 and amendments thereto, or a bus, as defined by K.S.A. 8-1406 and amendments thereto, who is not in the driving compartment of such vehicle or who is in a portion of such vehicle from which the driver is not directly accessible.

          (c) Violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not more than $200 or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or both.

          (d) Except as provided in subsection (f) upon conviction or adjudication of a second or subsequent violation of this section, the judge, in addition to any other penalty or disposition ordered pursuant to law, shall suspend the person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the streets and highways of this state for one year.

          (e) Upon suspension of a license pursuant to this section, the court shall require the person to surrender the license to the court, which shall transmit the license to the division of motor vehicles of the department of revenue, to be retained until the period of suspension expires. At that time, the licensee may apply to the division for return of the license. If the license has expired, the person may apply for a new license, which shall be issued promptly upon payment of the proper fee and satisfaction of other conditions established by law for obtaining a license unless another suspension or revocation of the person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle is in effect.

          (f) As used in this section, 'highway' and 'street' have the meanings provided by K.S.A. 8-1424 and 8-1473, and amendments thereto.

          (g) In lieu of suspending the driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the highways of this state of any person convicted of violating this section, as provided in subsection (d), the judge of the court in which such person was convicted may enter an order which places conditions on such person's privilege of operating a motor vehicle on the highways of this state, a certified copy of which such person shall be required to carry any time such person is operating a motor vehicle on the highways of this state. Any such order shall prescribe the duration of the conditions imposed, which in no event shall be for a period of more than one year for a second violation.

          Upon entering an order restricting a person's license hereunder, the judge shall require such person to surrender such person's driver's license to the judge who shall cause it to be transmitted to the division of vehicles, together with a copy of the order. Upon receipt thereof, the division of vehicles shall issue without charge a driver's license which shall indicate on its face that conditions have been imposed on such person's privilege of operating a motor vehicle and that a certified copy of the order imposing such conditions is required to be carried by the person for whom the license was issued any time such person is operating a motor vehicle on the highways of this state. If the person convicted is a nonresident, the judge shall cause a copy of the order to be transmitted to the division and the division shall forward a copy of it to the motor vehicle administrator, of such person's state of residence. Such judge shall furnish to any person whose driver's license has had conditions imposed on it under this section a copy of the order, which shall be recognized as a valid Kansas driver's license until such time as the division shall issue the restricted license provided for in this section.

          Upon expiration of the period of time for which conditions are imposed pursuant to this subsection, the licensee may apply to the division for the return of the license previously surrendered by such licensee. In the event such license has expired, such person may apply to the division for a new license, which shall be issued immediately by the division upon payment of the proper fee and satisfaction of the other conditions established by law, unless such person's privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the highways of this state has been suspended or revoked prior thereto. If any person shall violate any of the conditions imposed under this subsection, such person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle on the highways of this state shall be revoked for a period of not less than 60 days nor more than one year by the judge of the court in which such person is convicted of violating such conditions.

          (h) It shall be an affirmative defense to any prosecution under this section that an occupant of the vehicle other than the defendant was in exclusive possession of the alcoholic liquor.

          (i) The court shall report to the division every conviction of a violation of this section or of a city ordinance or county resolution that prohibits the acts prohibited by this section. Prior to sentencing under the provisions of this section, the court shall request and shall receive from the division a record of all prior convictions obtained against such person for any violations of any of the motor vehicle laws of this state.

          (j) For the purpose of determining whether a conviction is a first, second or subsequent conviction in sentencing under this section:

          (1) 'Conviction' includes being convicted of a violation of an ordinance of any city, or resolution of any county, which prohibits the acts that this section prohibits;

          (2) only convictions occurring in the immediately preceding five years, including prior to the effective date of this act, shall be taken into account, but the court may consider other prior convictions in determining the sentence to be imposed within the limits provided for a first, second or subsequent offender, whichever is applicable; and

          (3) it is irrelevant whether an offense occurred before or after conviction for a previous offense.

          (k) This section shall not be construed as preventing any city from enacting ordinances, or any county from adopting resolutions, declaring acts prohibited by this section as unlawful or prohibited in such city or county and prescribing penalties for violation thereof, but such ordinance or resolution shall provide for suspension or restriction of driving privileges as provided by this section and the convicting court shall be required to report convictions for violations of such ordinance or resolution as provided by subsection (i).

          (l) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 1949, ch. 242, § 93; L. 1981, ch. 201, § 1; L. 1993, ch 259, § 12; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 274; L. 1994, ch. 353, § 15; L. 2006, ch. 206, § 8; July 1.

8-15,100. Operation of all-terrain vehicles; where; when; exceptions.

          (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), it shall be unlawful for any person to operate an all-terrain vehicle: (1) On any interstate highway, federal highway or state highway; or (2) within the corporate limits of any city of the first class unless authorized by such city.

          (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), all-terrain vehicles owned and operated by a county noxious weed department, or all-terrain vehicles owned and operated by persons contracting with a county noxious weed department or the Kansas department of transportation may be allowed to operate such all-terrain vehicles upon the right-of-way of any federal highway or state highway for the purpose of eradicating noxious weeds and such all-terrain vehicles may be operated incidentally upon such federal highway or state highway.

          (c) No all-terrain vehicle shall be operated on any public highway, street or road between sunset and sunrise unless equipped with lights as required by law for motorcycles.

          (d) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 1996, ch. 220, § 2; L. 2007, ch. 140, § 7, July 1.

8-15,102. Littering.

(a) No person shall throw, place or drop litter or allow litter to be thrown, placed or dropped from a motor vehicle onto or upon any highway, road or street. The driver of the vehicle may be cited for any litter thrown, placed or dropped from the motor vehicle, unless any other person in the motor vehicle admits to or is identified as having committed the act.

(b) "Litter" means rubbish, refuse, waste material, garbage, trash or debris of whatever kind or description and includes improperly discarded paper, metal, plastic or glass.

(c) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2004, ch. 163, § 1 July 1.

8-15,103. Failure to obey school crossing guard.

          (a) No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any uniformed school crossing guard invested by law with authority to direct, control or regulate traffic.

          (b) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic.

History: L. 2006, ch. 134, § 1; July 1.

8-15,104. School crossing guards; appointment; training; limitations.

          (a) The governing body of any school district, nonpublic school, city, township located in a county designated as an urban area pursuant to K.S.A. 19-2654, and amendments thereto, or county is hereby authorized to appoint and equip volunteers and designated employees of such school district, nonpublic school, city, township or county, and may provide training to such volunteers and employees as school crossing guards, as defined in K.S.A. 2013 Supp. 8-1492, and amendments thereto, and is further hereby authorized to retain any other individual, firm, partnership, corporation, public agency or other association of persons, by contract for services to direct traffic at school crossings, streets and highways in the vicinity of schools and bus stops, by means of lawful orders, signs or semaphores. Such persons shall wear a distinctive garb or insignia indicating such appointment.

          (b) School crossing guards shall not have the power to issue citations or the power to arrest provided to law enforcement officers.

History: L. 2006, ch. 134, § 3; L. 2014, ch. 60, § 1; April 24.

8-15,106. Operation of micro utility truck; where, when, exceptions.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to operate a micro utility truck:

          (1) On any interstate highway, federal highway or state highway; or

          (2) on any public highway or street within the corporate limits of any city unless authorized by such city.

          (b) No micro utility truck shall be operated on any public highway or street, unless such truck complies with the equipment requirements under article 17 of chapter 8 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto.

          (c) The provisions of subsection (a), shall not prohibit a micro utility truck from crossing a federal or state highway.

          (d) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2008, ch. 167, § 2; July 1.

8-15, 107. Removal of vehicles obstructing traffic; requirements.

          (a) Except in the case of an accident involving death or apparent injury of any person, or the transportation of hazardous material, the owner or driver of a vehicle which obstructs the regular flow of traffic on any interstate highway, U.S. highway, or any multilane or divided roadway, shall make every reasonable effort to move the vehicle from the roadway, if, moving the vehicle may be done safely, does not require towing and may be operated under its own power without further damage to the vehicle or the roadway and without endangering other vehicles or persons upon the roadway.

          (b) Except in the case of an accident involving death or apparent injury of any person or the transportation of hazardous material, authorized employees or agents of the Kansas department of transportation, Kansas highway patrol or other law enforcement agency without the consent of the driver or owner of the vehicle or property, may require, assist in or cause the removal from the roadway any vehicle, debris or any other property which is obstructing the regular flow of traffic, creating or aggravating an emergency situation or otherwise endangering public safety.

          (c) No state, county or municipal agency nor their authorized employees or agents shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the reasonable exercise of authority granted under this section.

          (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a driver is required to comply with the applicable provisions of K.S.A. 8-1601 et seq., and amendments thereto.

          (e) From and after July 1, 2009, and prior to July 1, 2010, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating subsection (a).

          (f) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2009, ch. 6, § 1; July 1.

8-15,108. Operation of golf cart; where, when, exceptions.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to operate a golf cart:

          (1) On any interstate highway, federal highway or state highway;

          (2) on any public highway or street within the corporate limits of any city unless authorized by such city; or

          (3) on any street or highway with a posted speed limit greater than 30 miles per hour.

          (b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall not prohibit a golf cart from crossing a federal or state highway or a street or highway with a posted speed limit in excess of 30 miles per hour.

          (c) A golf cart shall be operated on any public street or highway only during the hours between sunrise and sunset.

          (d) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2009, ch. 119, § 2, July 1.

8-15, 109. Operation of work-site utility vehicle; where, when, exceptions.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to operate a work-site utility vehicle:

          (1) On any interstate highway, federal highway or state highway; or

          (2) within the corporate limits of any city unless authorized by such city.

          (b) No work-site utility vehicle shall be operated on any public high-way, street or road between sunset and sunrise unless equipped with lights as required by law for motorcycles.

          (c) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2009, ch. 119, § 3, July 1.

8-15,110. Covering license plate with plastic-like material.

          (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to attach and display on any vehicle a license plate, as required under article 1 of chapter 8 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, which is covered, in whole or in part, with any clear or opaque material or any other plastic-like material that affects the plate’s visibility or reflectivity.

(b) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2010, ch. 151, § 1; July 1.

8-15,111. Text messaging, prohibited; exceptions.

          (a) As used in this section:

          (1) "Wireless communication device" means any wireless electronic communication device that provides for voice or data communication between two or more parties, including, but not limited to, a mobile or cellular telephone, a text messaging device, a personal digital assistant that sends or receives messages, an audio-video player that sends or receives messages or a laptop computer. "Wireless communication device" does not include a device which is voice-operated and which allows the user to send or receive a text based communication without the use of either hand, except to activate or deactivate a feature or function.

          (2) "Write, send or read a written communication" means using a wireless communication device to manually type, send or read a written communication, including, but not limited to, a text message, instant message or electronic mail.

          (b) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), no person shall operate a motor vehicle on a public road or highway while using a wireless communications device to write, send or read a written communication.

          (c) The provisions of subsection (b) shall not apply to:

          (1) A law enforcement officer or emergency service personnel acting within the course and scope of the law enforcement officer’s or emergency service personnel’s employment;

(2) a motor vehicle stopped off the regular traveled portion of the roadway;

          (3) a person who reads, selects or enters a telephone number or name in a wireless communications device for the purpose of making or receiving a phone call;

          (4) a person who receives an emergency, traffic or weather alert message; or

          (5) a person receiving a message related to the operation or navigation of the motor vehicle.

          (d) The provisions of subsection (b) shall not prohibit a person from using a wireless communications device while operating a moving motor vehicle to:

          (1) Report current or ongoing illegal activity to law enforcement;

          (2) prevent imminent injury to a person or property; or

          (3) relay information between transit or for-hire operator and the operator’s dispatcher, in which the device is permanently affixed to the motor vehicle.

          (e) From and after the effective date of this act and prior to January 1, 2011, a law enforcement officer shall issue a warning citation to anyone violating subsection (b).

          (f) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the uniform act regulating traffic on highways.

History: L. 2010, ch. 151, § 2; July 1.