K.S.A. Chapter 60

Article 31 - Protection from Abuse Act

Current Through end of 2017 legislative session

60-3101   Citation and construction of act.

60-3102   Definitions.

60-3103   Jurisdiction.

60-3104   Commencement of proceedings; persons seeking relief on behalf of minor child; forms; no docket fee; confidentiality of certain matters, exceptions.

60-3105   Emergency relief.

60-3106   Hearings; temporary orders pending hearing, modification.

60-3107   Orders for relief of abuse, procedure; modifications; inconsistent orders; violation of orders, criminal violations and penalties.

60-3108   Notice of protection orders.

60-3109   Procedure.

60-3110   Contempt.

60-3112   Entering protection orders into the national criminal information center protection order file.

60-3101. Citation and construction of act.

(a) K.S.A. 60-3101 through 60-3111, and amendments thereto, shall be known and may be cited as the protection from abuse act.

(b) This act shall be liberally construed to promote the protection of victims of domestic violence from bodily injury or threats of bodily injury and to facilitate access to judicial protection for the victims, whether represented by counsel or proceeding pro se.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 1; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 1; July 1.

60-3102. Definitions.

          As used in the protection from abuse act:

          (a) "Abuse" means the occurrence of one or more of the following acts between intimate partners or household members:

          (1) Intentionally attempting to cause bodily injury, or intentionally or recklessly causing bodily injury.

          (2) Intentionally placing, by physical threat, another in fear of imminent bodily injury.

          (3) Engaging in any sexual contact or attempted sexual contact with another person without consent or when such person is incapable of giving consent.

          (4) Engaging in any of the following acts with a minor under 16 years of age who is not the spouse of the offender:

          (A) The act of sexual intercourse; or

          (B) any lewd fondling or touching of the person of either the minor or the offender, done or submitted to with the intent to arouse or to satisfy the sexual desires of either the minor or the offender, or both.

          (b) "Intimate partners or household members" means persons who are or have been in a dating relationship, persons who reside together or who have formerly resided together or persons who have had a child in common.

          (c) "Dating relationship" means a social relationship of a romantic nature. A dating relationship shall be presumed if a plaintiff verifies, pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, that such relationship exists. In addition to any other factors the court deems relevant, the court shall consider the following factors in making a determination of whether a relationship exists or existed include:

          (1) Nature of the relationship;

          (2) length of time the relationship existed;

          (3) frequency of interaction between the parties; and

          (4) time since termination of the relationship, if applicable.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 2; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 1; L. 1983, ch. 201, § 1; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 2; L. 1994, ch. 335, § 8; L. 1998, ch. 94, § 1; L. 2002, ch. 142, § 1; L. 2017, ch. 66, § 2; July 1.

60-3103. Jurisdiction.

          Any district court shall have jurisdiction over all proceedings under the protection from abuse act. The right of a person to obtain relief under the protection from abuse act shall not be affected by the person's leaving the residence or household to avoid further abuse. Any petition under this act seeking orders regarding a custody determination, as defined in K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 23-37,102, and amendments thereto, shall state that information required by K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 23-37,209, and amendments thereto, and the basis under which child-custody jurisdiction is sought to be invoked.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 3; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 2; L. 1983, ch. 201, § 2; L. 1996, ch. 208, § 5; L. 2000, ch. 171, § 81; L. 2012, ch. 162, § 82; May 31.

60-3104. Commencement of proceedings; persons seeking relief on behalf of minor child; forms; no docket fee; confidentiality of certain matters, exceptions.

          (a) An intimate partner or household member may seek relief under the protection from abuse act by filing a verified petition with any district judge or with the clerk of the court alleging abuse by another intimate partner or household member.

          (b) A parent of or an adult residing with a minor child may seek relief under the protection from abuse act on behalf of the minor child by filing a verified petition with any district judge or with the clerk of the court alleging abuse by another intimate partner or household member.

          (c) The clerk of the court shall supply the forms for the petition and orders, which shall be prescribed by the judicial council.

          (d) Service of process served under this section shall be by personal service and not by certified mail return receipt requested. No docket fee shall be required for proceedings under the protection from abuse act.

          (e) If the court finds that the plaintiff's address or telephone number, or both, needs to remain confidential for the protection of the plaintiff, plaintiff's minor children or minor children residing with the plaintiff, such information shall not be disclosed to the public, but only to authorized court or law enforcement personnel and to the commission on judicial performance in the discharge of the commission’s duties pursuant to article 32 of chapter 20 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 4; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 3; L. 1983, ch. 201, § 3; L. 1986, ch. 115, § 96; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 3; L. 1990, ch. 202, § 25; L. 1996, ch. 208, § 6; L. 1998, ch. 94, § 2; L. 2002, ch. 142, § 2; L. 2008, ch. 145, § 11; L. 2012, ch. 138, § 3; July 1.

60-3105. Emergency relief.

          (a) When the court is unavailable, a verified petition, accompanied by a proposed order, may be presented to any district judge. The judge may grant relief in accordance with subsection (a)(1), (2), (4) or (5) of K.S.A. 60-3107 and amendments thereto, or any combination thereof, if the judge deems it necessary to protect the plaintiff or minor child or children from abuse. An emergency order pursuant to this subsection may be granted ex parte. Immediate and present danger of abuse to the plaintiff or minor child or children shall constitute good cause for the entry of the emergency order.

          (b) An emergency order issued under subsection (a) shall expire on 5:00 p.m. on the first day when the court resumes court business. At that time, the plaintiff may seek a temporary order from the court.

          (c) The judge shall note on the petition and any order granted, including any documentation in support thereof, the filing date, together with the judge's signature, and shall deliver them to the clerk of the court on the next day of the resumption of business of the court.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 5; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 4; L. 1986, ch. 115, § 97; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 4; L. 1996, ch. 208, § 7; L. 1998, ch. 94, § 3; July 1.

60-3106. Hearings; temporary orders pending hearing, modification.

          (a) Within 20 days of the filing of a petition under this act a hearing shall be held at which the plaintiff must prove the allegation of abuse by a preponderance of the evidence and the defendant shall have an opportunity to cross-examine the petitioner’s witnesses and present evidence on the defendant's behalf. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall set the case for hearing and advise the parties of the right to be represented by counsel.

          (b) Prior to the hearing on the petition and upon a finding of good cause shown, the court on motion of a party may enter such temporary relief orders in accordance with subsection (a)(1), (2), (4) or (5) of K.S.A. 60-3107 and amendments thereto, or any combination thereof, as it deems necessary to protect the plaintiff or minor children from abuse. Temporary orders may be granted ex parte. Immediate and present danger of abuse to the plaintiff or minor children shall constitute good cause for purposes of this section. No temporary order shall have the effect of modifying an existing order granting legal custody, residency, visitation or parenting time unless there is sworn testimony at a hearing to support a showing of good cause.

          (c) If a hearing under subsection (a) is continued, the court may make or extend such temporary orders under subsection (b) as it deems necessary.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 6; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 5; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 5; L. 1998, ch. 94, § 4; L. 2000, ch. 171, § 23; L. 2012, ch. 138, § 4; July 1.

60-3107. Orders for relief of abuse, procedure; modifications; inconsistent orders; violation of orders, criminal violations and penalties.

          (a) The court may approve any consent agreement to bring about a cessation of abuse of the plaintiff or minor children or grant any of the following orders:

          (1) Restraining the defendant from abusing, molesting or interfering with the privacy or rights of the plaintiff or of any minor children of the parties. Such order shall contain a statement that if such order is violated, such violation may constitute assault as provided in K.S.A. 21-3408, and amendments thereto, battery as provided in K.S.A. 21-3412, and amendments thereto, domestic battery as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3412a, and amendments thereto and violation of a protective order as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3843, and amendments thereto.

          (2) Granting possession of the residence or household to the plaintiff to the exclusion of the defendant, and further restraining the defendant from entering or remaining upon or in such residence or household, subject to the limitation of subsection (d). Such order shall contain a statement that if such order is violated, such violation shall constitute criminal trespass as provided in subsection (c) of K.S.A. 21-3721, and amendments thereto, and violation of a protective order as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3843, and amendments thereto. The court may grant an order, which shall expire 60 days following the date of issuance, restraining the defendant from cancelling utility service to the residence or household.

          (3) Requiring defendant to provide suitable, alternate housing for the plaintiff and any minor children of the parties.

          (4) Awarding temporary custody and residency and establishing temporary parenting time with regard to minor children.

          (5) Ordering a law enforcement officer to evict the defendant from the residence or household.

          (6) Ordering support payments by a party for the support of a party's minor child, if the party is the father or mother of the child, or the plaintiff, if the plaintiff is married to the defendant. Such support orders shall remain in effect until modified or dismissed by the court or until expiration and shall be for a fixed period of time not to exceed one year. On the motion of the plaintiff, the court may extend the effect of such order for 12 months.

          (7) Awarding costs and attorney fees to either party.

          (8) Making provision for the possession of personal property of the parties and ordering a law enforcement officer to assist in securing possession of that property, if necessary.

          (9) Requiring any person against whom an order is issued to seek counseling to aid in the cessation of abuse.

          (10) Ordering or restraining any other acts deemed necessary to promote the safety of the plaintiff or of any minor children of the parties.

          (b) No protection from abuse order shall be entered against the plaintiff unless:

          (1) The defendant properly files a written cross or counter petition seeking such a protection order;

          (2) the plaintiff had reasonable notice of the written cross or counter petition by personal service as provided in subsection (d) of K.S.A. 60-3104, and amendments thereto; and

          (3) the issuing court made specific findings of abuse against both the plaintiff and the defendant and determined that both parties acted primarily as aggressors and neither party acted primarily in self-defense.

          (c) Any order entered under the protection from abuse act shall not be subject to modification on ex parte application or on motion for temporary orders in any action filed pursuant to K.S.A. 60-1601 et seq., prior to such section’s repeal or transfer, or K.S.A. 38-1101 et seq., and amendments thereto, or articles 22 or 27 of chapter 23 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto. Orders previously issued in an action filed pursuant to K.S.A. 60-1601 et seq., prior to such section’s repeal or transfer, or K.S.A. 38-1101 et seq., and amendments thereto, or articles 22 or 27 of chapter 23 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, shall be subject to modification under the protection from abuse act only as to those matters subject to modification by the terms of K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 23-3201 through 23-3207, and 23-3218 and article 27 of chapter 23 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, and on sworn testimony to support a showing of good cause. Immediate and present danger of abuse to the plaintiff or minor children shall constitute good cause. If an action is filed pursuant to K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 23-3201 through 23-3207, or 23-3218 or articles 22 or 27 of chapter 23 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, during the pendency of a proceeding filed under the protection from abuse act or while an order issued under the protection from abuse act is in effect, the court, on final hearing or on agreement of the parties, may issue final orders authorized by K.S.A. 2011 Supp. 23-3201 through 23-3207, and 23-3218 and articles 22 and 27 of chapter 23 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, that are inconsistent with orders entered under the protection from abuse act. Any inconsistent order entered pursuant to this subsection shall be specific in its terms, reference the protection from abuse order and parts thereof being modified and a copy thereof shall be filed in both actions. The court shall consider whether the actions should be consolidated in accordance with K.S.A. 60-242, and amendments thereto. Any custody or parenting time order, or order relating to the best interests of a child, issued pursuant to the revised Kansas code for care of children or the revised Kansas juvenile justice code, shall be binding and shall take precedence over any such custody or parenting order involving the same child issued under the protection from abuse act, until jurisdiction under the revised Kansas code for care of children or the revised Kansas juvenile justice code is terminated. Any inconsistent custody or parenting order issued in the revised Kansas code for care of children case or the revised Kansas juvenile justice code case shall be specific in its terms, reference any pre-existing protection from abuse order and the custody being modified, and a copy of such order shall be filed in the preexisting protection from abuse case.

          (d) If the parties to an action under the protection from abuse act are not married to each other and one party owns the residence or household, the court shall not have the authority to grant possession of the residence or household under subsection (a)(2) to the exclusion of the party who owns it.

          (e) Subject to the provisions of subsections (b), (c) and (d), a protective order or approved consent agreement shall remain in effect until modified or dismissed by the court and shall be for a fixed period of time not to exceed one year, except as provided in subsection (e)(1) and (e)(2).

          (1) Upon motion of the plaintiff, such period may be extended for one additional year.

          (2) Upon verified motion of the plaintiff and after the defendant has been personally served with a copy of the motion and has had an opportunity to present evidence and cross-examine witnesses at a hearing on the motion, if the court determines by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant has violated a valid protection order or (A) has previously violated a valid protection order, or (B) has been convicted of a person felony or any conspiracy, criminal solicitation or attempt thereof, under the laws of Kansas or the laws of any other jurisdiction which are substantially similar to such person felony, committed against the plaintiff or any member of the plaintiff’s household, the court shall extend a protective order for not less than two additional years and may extend the protective order up to the lifetime of the defendant. No service fee shall be required for a motion filed pursuant to this subsection.

          (f) The court may amend its order or agreement at any time upon motion filed by either party.

          (g) No order or agreement under the protection from abuse act shall in any manner affect title to any real property.

          (h) If a person enters or remains on premises or property violating an order issued pursuant to subsection (a)(2), such violation shall constitute criminal trespass as provided in subsection (c) of K.S.A. 21-3721, and amendments thereto, and violation of a protective order as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3843, and amendments thereto. If a person abuses, molests or interferes with the privacy or rights of another violating an order issued pursuant to subsection (a)(1), such violation may constitute assault as provided in K.S.A. 21-3408, and amendments thereto, battery as provided in K.S.A. 21-3412, and amendments thereto, domestic battery as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3412a, and amendments thereto, and violation of a protective order as provided in K.S.A. 2005 Supp. 21-3843, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 7; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 6; L. 1983, ch. 201, § 4; L. 1987, ch. 228, § 6; L. 1988, ch. 220, § 1; L. 1990, ch. 210, § 1; L. 1992, ch. 76, § 1; L. 1996, ch. 208, § 8; L. 1998, ch. 94, § 5; L. 2000, ch. 171, § 24; L. 2001, ch. 177, § 10; L. 2002, ch. 142, § 3; L. 2012, ch. 138, § 5; L. 2012, ch. 162, § 83; L. 2013, ch. 133, § 22; July 1.

60-3108. Notice of protection orders.

          A copy of any order under this act shall be issued to the plaintiff, the defendant and the police department of the city where the plaintiff resides. If the plaintiff does not reside in a city or resides in a city with no police department, a copy of the order shall be issued to the sheriff of the county where the order is issued or registered.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 8; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 7; L. 2001, ch. 177, § 4; July 1.

60-3109. Procedure.

          Except as otherwise provided in this act, any proceeding under this act shall be in accordance with chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated and shall be in addition to any other available civil or criminal remedies.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 9; July 1.

60-3110. Contempt.

          If, upon hearing, the court finds a violation of any order or consent agreement, the court may find the defendant in contempt pursuant to K.S.A. 20-1204a.

History: L. 1979, ch. 92, § 10; L. 1980, ch. 177, § 8; July 1.

60-3112. Entering protection orders into the national criminal information center protection order file.

          (a) All temporary, amended, final and other protection from abuse orders issued pursuant to article 31 of chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, or protection orders issued based on the laws of another jurisdiction which are entitled to full faith and credit in Kansas pursuant to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 2265, and amendments thereto, shall be entered into the national criminal information center protection order file. All emergency protection from abuse orders issued pursuant to article 31 of chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, and such emergency orders issued based on the laws of another jurisdiction which are entitled to full faith and credit in Kansas pursuant to the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 2265, and amendments thereto, may be entered into the national criminal information center protection order file. A copy of these orders shall be delivered by the clerk of the court to the sheriff of the county where the order is issued or registered. The sheriff's office shall immediately enter the order into the national criminal information center and other appropriate databases after all mandatory identifiers are available. If the order is a foreign protective order, the sheriff's office shall contact the issuing jurisdiction to verify the order and request that such jurisdiction enter the order into the national criminal information center and other appropriate databases. Any modification of an order shall be forwarded immediately by the clerk of the court to the sheriff's office with jurisdiction to enforce the modified order. The sheriff's office shall ensure the accuracy of the entries and the court shall ensure the validity of the orders.

          (b) All emergency and temporary orders which have been entered into the national criminal information center file shall be canceled upon the expiration of the time period set out in the court order, or, if no time period is set, no later than one year from the entry date. All other orders which have been entered into the national criminal information center protection order file shall be cleared as an active record from the computer system when:

          (1) The order expires according to the terms of such order;

          (2) a Kansas court notifies the law enforcement agency which has jurisdiction over the entry of the order that such order has been dismissed; or

          (3) a foreign protective order has been invalidated by either a Kansas court or a foreign court with jurisdiction over such order.

          (c) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the protection from abuse act.

History: L. 2001, ch. 177, § 3; L. 2002, ch. 142, § 4; July 1.