SELECTED EXCERPTS FROM

K.S.A. Chapter 60.--PROCEDURE, CIVIL

Article 2.--RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

Current through end of 2018 legislative session

60-201          Rules of civil procedure; citation; scope.

60-202          One form of action.

60-203          Commencement of action.

60-204          Process, generally.

60-205          Service and filing of pleadings and other papers.

60-206          Time, computation and extension; accessibility of court; definitions.

60-207          Pleadings allowed, forms of motions and petitions.

60-216          Pretrial conferences.

60-226          General provisions regarding discovery.

60-228a        Uniform interstate depositions and discovery act.

60-245          Subpoenas.

60-245a        Subpoena of records of a business not a party.

60-256          Summary judgment; filing fee.

60-272          Consulting with jurors

60-201. Rules of civil procedure; citation; scope.

          (a) The provisions of article 2 of chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated, and amendments thereto, shall be known and cited as the rules of civil procedure.

          (b) This article governs the procedure in the district courts of Kansas, other than actions commenced pursuant to the code of civil procedure for limited actions and governs the procedure in all original proceedings in the supreme court in all suits of a civil nature whether cognizable as cases at law or in equity, except as provided in K.S.A. 60-265, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-201; L. 1976, ch. 251, § 1; L. 2000, ch. 161, § 109; L. 2005, ch. 101, § 7; July 1.

60-202. One form of action.

          There shall be but one form of action to be known as "civil action," in which the party complaining shall be designated "plaintiff" and the adverse party "defendant."

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-202; Jan. 1, 1964.

60-203. Commencement of action.

          (a) Time of commencement. A civil action is commenced at the time of:

          (1) Filing a petition with the court, if service of process is obtained or the first publication is made for service by publication within 90 days after the petition is filed, except that the court may extend that time an additional 30 days upon a showing of good cause by the plaintiff; or

          (2) service of process or first publication, if service of process or first publication is not made within the time specified by paragraph (1).

          (b) Curing invalid service. If service of process or first publication purports to have been made but is later adjudicated to have been invalid due to an irregularity in form or procedure or a defect in making service, the action is considered to have been commenced at the applicable time under subsection (a) if valid service is obtained or first publication is made within 90 days after that adjudication, except that the court may extend that time an additional 30 days upon a showing of good cause by the plaintiff.

          (c) Entry of appearance. The filing of an entry of appearance has the same effect as service. Written contact with the court by a defendant, or an attorney for the defendant invoking protection for the defendant under the servicemembers civil relief act (50 U.S.C. § 501 et seq.), and amendments thereto, is not an entry of appearance.

          (d) Electronic filing. As used in this section, filing a petition with the court includes receipt by the court of a petition by electronic means complying with supreme court rules.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, § 60-203; L. 1983, ch. 193, § 1; L. 1990, ch. 202, § 1; L. 1991, ch. 169, § 1; L. 1992, ch. 128, § 12; L. 2005, ch. 45, § 4; L. 2011, ch. 48, § 3; July 1.

60-204. Process, generally.

          The methods of serving process as set forth in article 3 of this chapter shall constitute sufficient service of process in all civil actions and special proceedings, but they shall be alternative to, and not in restriction of different methods specifically provided by law. In any method of serving process, substantial compliance therewith shall effect valid service of process if the court finds that, notwithstanding some irregularity or omission, the party served was made aware that an action or proceeding was pending in a specified court in which his or her person, status or property were subject to being affected.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-204; Jan. 1, 1964.

60-205. Service and filing of pleadings and other papers.

          The method of service and filing of pleadings and other papers as provided in this section shall constitute sufficient service and filing in all civil actions and special proceedings but they shall be alternative to, and not in restriction of, different methods specifically provided by law.

          (a) When required. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the following shall be served upon each of the parties: Every order required by its terms to be served; every pleading subsequent to the original petition, unless the court otherwise orders because of numerous defendants; every paper relating to disclosure of expert testimony or discovery required to be served upon a party, unless the court otherwise orders; every written motion other than one which may be heard ex parte; and every written notice, appearance, demand, offer of judgment, designation of record on appeal and similar paper. No service need be made on parties in default for failure to appear except that pleadings asserting new or additional claims for relief against them shall be served upon them in the manner provided for service of summons in article 3 of chapter 60.

          (b) How made. Whenever under this article service is required or permitted to be made upon a party represented by an attorney the service shall be made upon the attorney unless service upon the party is ordered by the court. Service upon the attorney or upon a party shall be made by: (1) Delivering a copy to the attorney or a party: (2) mailing it to the attorney or a party at the last known address; (3) if no address is known, by leaving it with the clerk of the court; or (4) sending or transmitting to such attorney a copy by telefacsimile communication. For the purposes of this subsection, "Delivery of a copy" means: Handing it to the attorney or to the party; leaving it at the attorney's or party's office with the person in charge thereof or, if there is no one in charge, leaving it in a conspicuous place therein; or, if the attorney's or party's office is closed or the person to be served has no office, leaving it at the attorney's or party's dwelling house or usual place of abode with some person of suitable age and discretion then residing therein. Service by mail is complete upon mailing. Service by telefacsimile communication is complete upon receipt of a confirmation generated by the transmitting machine.

          (c) Numerous defendants. In any action in which there are unusually large numbers of defendants, the court, upon motion or of its own initiative, may order that services of the pleadings of the defendants and replies thereto need not be made as between the defendants and that any cross-claim, counterclaim or matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense contained therein shall be deemed to be denied or avoided by all other parties and that the filing of any such pleading and service thereof upon the plaintiff constitutes due notice of it to the parties. A copy of every such order shall be served upon the parties in such manner and form as the court directs.

          (d) Filing. (1) Interrogatories, depositions other than those taken under K.S.A. 60-227 and amendments thereto, disclosures of expert testimony under K.S.A. 60-226 and amendments thereto and discovery requests or responses under K.S.A. 60-234 or 60-236, and amendments thereto, shall not be filed except on order of the court or until used in a trial or hearing, at which time the documents shall be filed.

          (2) A party serving discovery requests or responses under K.S.A. 60-233, 60-234 or 60-236, and amendments thereto, or disclosures of expert testimony under K.S.A. 60-226 and amendments thereto, shall file with the court a certificate stating what document was served, when and upon whom.

          (3) All other papers filed after the petition and required to be served upon a party, shall be filed with the court either before service or within a reasonable time thereafter.

          (e) Filing with the court defined. The filing of pleadings and other papers with the court as required by this article shall be made by filing them with the clerk of the court. In accordance with K.S.A. 60-271 and amendments thereto and supreme court rules, pleadings and other papers may be filed by telefacsimile communication. The judge may permit the papers to be filed with the judge, in which event the judge shall note thereon the filing date and forthwith transmit them to the office of the clerk.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-205; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 20, 1972; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 28, 1976; L. 1987, ch. 218, § 1; L. 1992, ch. 128, § 13; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 2; L. 2002, ch. 198, § 18; July 1.

60-206. Time, computation and extension; accessibility of court; definitions.

          (a) Computing time. The following provisions apply in computing any time period specified in this chapter, in any local rule or court order or in any statute or administrative rule or regulation that does not specify a method of computing time.

          (1) Period stated in days or a longer unit. When the period is stated in days or a longer unit of time:

          (A) Exclude the day of the event that triggers the period;

          (B) count every day, including intermediate Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays; and

          (C) include the last day of the period, but if the last day is a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.

          (2) Period stated in hours. When the period is stated in hours:

          (A) Begin counting immediately on the occurrence of the event that triggers the period;

          (B) count every hour, including hours during intermediate Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays; and

          (C) if the period would end on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the same time on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.

          (3) Inaccessibility of the clerk's office. Unless the court orders otherwise, if the clerk's office is inaccessible:

          (A) On the last day for filing under subsection (a)(1), then the time for filing is extended to the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday; or

          (B) during the last hour for filing under subsection (a)(2), then the time for filing is extended to the same time on the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday.


          (4) "Last day" defined. Unless a different time is set by a statute, local rule or court order, the last day ends:

          (A) For electronic or telefacsimile filing, at midnight in the court's time zone; and

          (B) for filing by other means, when the clerk's office is scheduled to close.

          (5) "Next day" defined. The "next day" is determined by continuing to count forward when the period is measured after an event and backward when measured before an event.

          (6) "Legal holiday" defined. "Legal holiday" means any day declared a holiday by the president of the United States, the congress of the United States or the legislature of this state, or any day observed as a holiday by order of the Kansas supreme court. A half holiday is considered as other days and not as a holiday.

          (b) Extending time. (1) In general. When an act may or must be done within a specified time, the court may, for good cause, extend the time:

          (A) With or without motion or notice if the court acts, or if a request is made, before the original time or its extension expires; or

          (B) on motion made after the time has expired if the party failed to act because of excusable neglect.

          (2) Exceptions. A court must not extend the time to act under K.S.A. 60-250(b), K.S.A. 60-252(b), K.S.A. 60-259(b), (e) and (f) and K.S.A. 60-260(b), and amendments thereto.

          (c) Motions, notices of hearing and affidavits or declarations. (1) In general. A written motion and notice of the hearing must be served at least seven days before that time specified for the hearing with the following exceptions:

          (A) When the motion may be heard ex parte;

          (B) when these rules set a different time; or

          (C) when a court order, which a party may, for good cause, apply for ex parte, sets a different time.

          (2) Supporting affidavit or declaration. Any affidavit or declaration pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, supporting a motion must be served with the motion. Except as otherwise provided in K.S.A. 60-259(d), and amendments thereto, any opposing affidavit or declaration must be served at least one day before the hearing, unless the court permits service at another time.

          (d) Additional time after certain kinds of service. When a party may or must act within a specified time after service and service is made under K.S.A. 60-205(b)(2)(C) (mail) or (D) (leaving with the clerk), and amendments thereto, three days are added after the period would otherwise expire under subsection (a).

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-206; L. 1988, ch. 207, § 1; L. 1988, ch. 206, § 1; L. 1988, ch. 208, § 1; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 3; L. 2005, ch. 183, § 1; L. 2007, ch. 190, § 16; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 73; L. 2011, ch. 48, § 4; L. 2017, ch. 75, § 2; July 1.

60-207. Pleadings allowed, forms of motions and petitions.

          (a) Pleadings. There shall be a petition and an answer; a reply to a counterclaim denominated as such; an answer to a cross-claim, if the answer contains a cross-claim; a third-party petition, if a person who was not an original party is summoned under the provision of K.S.A. 60-214; and a third-party answer, if a third-party petition is served. No other pleading shall be allowed, except that the court may order a reply to an answer or a third-party answer. Any petition filed in the district court pursuant to chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated shall designate, immediately below the names of the parties in the caption, that such petition is filed pursuant to chapter 60 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated. Any such designation shall be sufficient if labeled "Petition Pursuant to K.S.A. Chapter 60" immediately below the caption.

          (b) Motions and other papers. (1) An application to the court or judge for an order shall be by motion which, unless made during a hearing or trial, shall be made in writing, shall state with particularity the grounds therefor, and shall set forth the relief or order sought. The requirement of writing is fulfilled if the motion is stated in a written notice of the hearing of the motion. (2) The sections of this article applicable to captions, signing, and other matters of form of pleadings apply to all motions and other papers provided for by this article.

          (c) Demurrers, pleas, etc., abolished. Demurrers, pleas, and exceptions for insufficiency of a pleading shall not be used.

          (d) Lost pleadings. If an original pleading is lost, destroyed, or withheld by any person, the court or judge may allow a copy thereof to be substituted.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-207; L. 1976, ch. 251, § 2; Jan. 10, 1977.

60-236. Requests for admission.

          (a) Request for admission. A party may serve upon any other party a written request for the admission, for purposes of the pending action only, of the truth of any matters within the scope of K.S.A. 60-226, and amendments thereto, set forth in the request that relate to statements or opinions of fact or of the application of law to fact, including the genuineness of any documents described in the request. Copies of documents shall be served with the request unless they have been or are otherwise furnished or made available for inspection and copying. The request, without leave of the judge, may be served upon the plaintiff after commencement of the action and upon any other party with or after service of process upon that party. Each matter of which an admission is requested shall be separately set forth. A matter is admitted unless, within 30 days after service of the request, or within such shorter or longer time as the court may allow, the party to whom the request is directed serves upon the party requesting the admission a written answer or objection addressed to the matter, signed by the party or by such party's attorney, but, unless the court shortens the time, a defendant shall not be required to serve answers or objections before the expiration of 45 days after service of process upon the defendant. If objection is made, the reasons therefor shall be stated. The answer shall specifically deny the matter or set forth in detail the reasons why the answering party cannot truthfully admit or deny the matter. A denial shall fairly meet the substance of the requested admission, and when good faith requires that a party qualify such party's answer or deny only a part of the matter of which an admission is requested, such party shall specify so much of it as is true and qualify or deny the remainder. An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as a reason for failure to admit or deny unless such party states that such party has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known or readily obtainable by such party is insufficient to enable such party to admit or deny. A party who considers that a matter of which an admission has been requested presents a genuine issue for trial may not, on that ground alone, object to the request; such party, subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, may deny the matter or set forth reasons why such party cannot admit or deny it.

          The party who has requested the admissions may move to determine the sufficiency of the answers or objections. Unless the judge determines that an objection is justified, the judge shall order that an answer be served. If the judge determines that an answer does not comply with the requirements of this rule, the judge may order either that the matter is admitted or that an amended answer be served. The judge, in lieu of these orders, may determine that final disposition of the request be made at a pretrial conference or at a designated time prior to trial. The provisions of subsection (a) of K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

          (b) Effect of admission. Any matter admitted under this rule is conclusively established unless the judge on motion permits withdrawal or amendment of the admission. Subject to the provisions of K.S.A. 60-216, and amendments thereto, governing amendment of a pretrial order, the judge may permit withdrawal or amendment when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the party who obtained the admission fails to satisfy the judge that withdrawal or amendment will prejudice such party in maintaining such party's action or defense on the merits. Any admission made by a party under this rule is for the purpose of the pending action only and is not an admission by such party for any other purpose nor may it be used against such party in any other proceeding.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-236; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 20, 1972; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 19; July 1.

60-216. Pretrial conferences.

          (a) Purposes of a pretrial conference. In any action, the court must on the request of any party, or may without a request, order the attorneys for the parties and any unrepresented parties to appear for one or more conferences to expedite processing and disposition of the litigation, minimize expense and conserve time.

          (b) Case management conference. In any action, the court must on the request of any party, or may without a request, conduct a case management conference with attorneys and any unrepresented parties. The court must schedule the conference as soon as possible. The conference must be conducted within 45 days after the filing of an answer, unless the court extends the time to meet the needs of the case.

          (1) At a case management conference the court must consider and take appropriate action on the following matters:

          (A) Identifying the issues and exploring the possibilities of stipulations and settlement;

          (B) determining whether the action is suitable for alternative dispute resolution;

          (C) exchanging information on the issues, including key documents and witness identification;

          (D) establishing a plan and schedule for discovery, including setting limits on discovery, if any, designating the time and place of discovery, restricting discovery to certain designated witnesses or requiring statements be taken in writing or by use of electronic recording rather than by stenographic transcription;

          (E) determining issues relating to disclosure or, discovery or preservation of electronically stored information, including the form or forms in which it should be produced;

          (F) determining issues relating to claims of privilege or of protection as trial-preparation material, including, any agreements the parties reach for asserting claims of privilege or of protection as trial-preparation material after information is produced, including agreements reached under K.S.A. 60-426a, and amendments thereto;

          (G) requiring completion of discovery within a definite number of days after the conference has been conducted;

          (H) setting deadlines for filing motions, joining parties and amendments to the pleadings;

          (I) setting the date or dates for conferences before trial, a final pretrial conference, and trial; and

          (J) such other matters as are necessary for the proper management of the action.

          (2) If a case management conference is held, no depositions, other than of the parties may be taken until after the conference is held, except by agreement of the parties, by order of the court or as provided in K.S.A. 60-230(a)(2)(B), and amendments thereto. If the case management conference is not held within 45 days after the filing of an answer, the restrictions of this paragraph no longer apply.

          (3) If discovery cannot be completed within the time originally prescribed by the court, the party not able to complete discovery may file a motion for additional time to complete discovery. The motion must be filed prior to the expiration of the original period, contain a discovery plan and state the reason why discovery cannot be completed within the original period. If additional time is allowed, the court must grant only that amount of time reasonably necessary to complete discovery.

          (c) Attendance and matters for consideration at a pretrial conference.

          (1) Attendance. A represented party must authorize at least one of its attorneys to make stipulations and admissions about all matters that can be reasonably anticipated for discussion at a pretrial conference. If appropriate, the court may require that a party or its representative be present or reasonably available by other means in order to consider possible settlement of the dispute. The court may allow a pretrial conference to be held by a telephone conference call or other means.

          (2) Matters for consideration. At any pretrial conference, the court may consider and take appropriate action on the following matters:

          (A) Simplifying the issues;

          (B) determining the issues of law that may eliminate or affect the trial of issues of fact;

          (C) amending the pleadings if necessary or desirable;

          (D) obtaining admissions and stipulations about facts and documents to avoid unnecessary proof;

          (E) limiting the number of expert witnesses;

          (F) referring issues to a master; and

          (G) such other matters as may aid in the disposition of the action, including alternative dispute resolution.

          (d) Pretrial orders. After any conference held under this section, the court should issue an order reciting the action taken. This order controls the subsequent course of the action unless the court modifies it.

          (e) Final pretrial conference and orders. In any action, the court must on the request of any party, or may without a request, conduct a final pretrial conference in accordance with procedures established by rule of the supreme court. The court may modify the order issued after a final pretrial conference only to prevent manifest injustice.

          (f) Sanctions. (1) In general. On motion or on its own, and after opportunity to be heard, the court may issue any just orders, including those authorized by K.S.A. 60-237(b)(2)(A)(ii) through (vii), and amendments thereto, if a party or its attorney:

          (A) Fails to appear at a case management or other pretrial conference;

          (B) is substantially unprepared to participate, or does not participate in good faith, in the conference; or

          (C) fails to obey a scheduling or other pretrial order.

          (2) Imposing fees and costs. Instead of, or in addition to any other sanction, the court must order the party, its attorney, or both to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney’s fees, incurred because of any noncompliance with this section, unless the noncompliance was substantially justified or other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-216; L. 1986, ch. 215, § 4; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 9; L. 2008, ch. 21, § 1; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 83; L. 2017, ch. 75, § 3; July 1.

60-226. General provisions regarding discovery.

          (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: Depositions on oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter onto land or other property under K.S.A. 60-234, K.S.A. 60-245(a)(1)(A)(iii) or K.S.A. 60-245a, and amendments thereto; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.

          (b) Discovery scope and limits. (1) Scope in general. Unless otherwise limited by court order, the scope of discovery is as follows: Parties may obtain discovery regarding any nonprivileged matter that is relevant to any party’s claim or defense, and proportional to the needs of the case, considering the importance of the issues at stake in the action, the amount in controversy, the parties’ relative access to relevant information, the parties’ resources, the importance of the discovery in resolving the issues and whether the burden or expense of the proposed discovery outweighs its likely benefit. Information within this scope of discovery need not be admissible in evidence to be discoverable.

          (2) Limitations on frequency and extent. (A) On motion, or on its own, the court may limit the frequency or extent of discovery methods otherwise allowed by the rules of civil procedure and must do so if it determines that:

          (i) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or can be obtained from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome or less expensive;

          (ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity to obtain the information by discovery in the action; or

          (iii) the proposed discovery is outside the scope permitted by subsection (b)(1).

          (B) A party need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the party identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the party from whom discovery is sought must show that the information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause, considering the limitations of subsection (b)(2)(A). The court may specify con-

ditions for the discovery.

          (3) Insurance agreements. A party may obtain discovery of the existence and contents of any insurance agreement under which an insurance business may be liable to satisfy part or all of a possible judgment in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment. Information concerning the insurance agreement is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial. For purposes of this paragraph, an application for insurance is not a part of an insurance agreement.

          (4) Trial preparation; materials. (A) Documents and tangible things. Ordinarily, a party may not discover documents and tangible things that are prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or its representative, including the other party’s attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer or agent. But, subject to subsection (b)(5), those materials may be discovered if:

          (i) They are otherwise discoverable under paragraph (1); and

          (ii) the party shows that it has substantial need for the materials to prepare its case and cannot, without undue hardship, obtain their substantial equivalent by other means.

          (B) Protection against disclosure. If the court orders discovery of those materials, it must protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions or legal theories of a party’s attorney or other representative concerning the litigation.

          (C) Previous statement. Any party or other person may, on request and without the required showing, obtain the person’s own previous statement about the action or its subject matter. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order, and K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, applies to the award of expenses. A previous statement is either:

          (i) A written statement that the person has signed or otherwise adopted or approved; or

          (ii) a contemporaneous stenographic, mechanical, electrical or other recording, or a transcription of it, that recites substantially verbatim the person’s oral statement.

          (5) Trial preparation; experts.

          (A) Deposition of an expert who may testify. A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. If a disclosure is required under subsection (b)(6), the deposition may be conducted only after the disclosure is provided.

          (B) Trial-preparation protection for draft disclosures. Subsections (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) protect drafts of any disclosure required under subsection (b)(6), and drafts of a disclosure by an expert witness provided in lieu of the disclosure required by subsection (b)(6), regardless of the form in which the draft is recorded.

          (C) Trial-preparation protection for communications between a party’s attorney and expert witnesses. Subsections (b)(4)(A) and (b)(4)(B) protect communications between the party’s attorney and any witness about whom disclosure is required under subsection (b)(6), regardless of the form of the communications, except to the extent that the communications:

          (i) Relate to compensation for the expert’s study or testimony;

          (ii) identify facts or data that the party’s attorney provided and that the expert considered in forming the opinions to be expressed; or

          (iii) identify assumptions that the party’s attorney provided and that the expert relied on in forming the opinions to be expressed.

          (D) Expert employed only for trial preparation. Ordinarily, a party may not, by interrogatories or deposition, discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or to prepare for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial. But a party may do so only:

          (i) As provided in K.S.A. 60-235(b), and amendments thereto; or

          (ii) on showing exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

          (E) Payment. Unless manifest injustice would result, the court must

require that the party seeking discovery:

          (i) Pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under subsection (b)(5)(A) or (b)(5)(D); and

          (ii) for discovery under subsection (b)(5)(D), also pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses it reasonably incurred in obtaining the expert’s facts and opinions.

          (6) Disclosure of expert testimony. (A) Required disclosures. A party must disclose to other parties the identity of any witness it may use at trial to present expert testimony. The disclosure must state:

          (i) The subject matter on which the expert is expected to testify; and

          (ii) the substance of the facts and opinions to which the expert is expected to testify.

          (B) Witness who is retained or specially employed. Unless otherwise stipulated or ordered by the court, if the witness is retained or specially employed to provide expert testimony in the case, or is one whose duties as the party’s employee regularly involve giving expert testimony, the disclosure under subsection (b)(6)(A) must also state a summary of the grounds for each opinion.

          (C) Time to disclose expert testimony. A party must make these disclosures at the times and in the sequence that the court orders. Absent a stipulation or court order, the disclosures must be made:

          (i) At least 90 days before the date set for trial or for the case to be ready for trial; or

          (ii) if the evidence is intended solely to contradict or rebut evidence on the same subject matter identified by another party under subsection (b)(6)(B), within 30 days after the other party’s disclosure.

          (D) Supplementing the disclosure. The parties must supplement these disclosures when required under subsection (e).

          (E) Form of disclosures. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, all disclosures under this subsection must be:

          (i) In writing, signed and served; and

          (ii) filed with the court in accordance with K.S.A. 60-205(d), and amendments thereto.

          (7) Claiming privilege or protecting trial preparation materials. (A) Information withheld. When a party withholds information otherwise discoverable by claiming that the information is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material, the party must:

          (i) Expressly make the claim; and

          (ii) describe the nature of the documents, communications or things not produced or disclosed, and do so in a manner that, without revealing information itself privileged or protected, will enable other parties to assess the claim.

          (B) Information produced. If information produced in discovery is subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as trial preparation material, the party making the claim may notify any party that received the information of the claim and the basis for it. After being notified, a party must promptly return, sequester or destroy the specified information and any copies it has; must not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved; must take reasonable steps to retrieve the information if the party disclosed it before being notified; and may promptly present the information to the court under seal for a determination of the claim. The producing party must preserve the information until the claim is resolved.

          (c) Protective orders. (1) In general. A party or any person from whom discovery is sought may move for a protective order in the court where the action is pending, as an alternative on matters relating to a deposition, in the district court where the deposition will be taken. The motion must include a certification that the movant has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with other affected parties in an effort to resolve the dispute without court action and must describe the steps taken by all attorneys or unrepresented parties to resolve the issues in dispute. The court may, for good cause, issue an order to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following:

          (A) Forbidding the disclosure or discovery;

          (B) specifying terms, including time and place or the allocation of expenses, for the disclosure or discovery;

          (C) prescribing a discovery method other than the one selected by the party seeking discovery;

          (D) forbidding inquiry into certain matters, or limiting the scope of disclosure or discovery to certain matters;

          (E) designating the persons who may be present while the discovery is conducted;

          (F) requiring that a deposition be sealed and opened only on court order;

          (G) requiring that a trade secret or other confidential research, development or commercial information not be revealed or be revealed only in a specified way; and

          (H) requiring that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information in sealed envelopes, to be opened as the court orders.

          (2) Ordering discovery. If a motion for a protective order is wholly

or partly denied the court may, on just terms, order that any party or person provide or permit discovery.

          (3) Awarding expenses. The provisions of K.S.A. 60-237, and amendments thereto, apply to the award of expenses.

          (d) Sequence of discovery. Unless, on motion, the parties stipulate or the court orders otherwise for the parties’ and witnesses’ convenience and in the interests of justice:

          (1) Methods of discovery may be used in any sequence; and

          (2) discovery by one party does not require any other party to delay its discovery.

          (e) Supplementing disclosures and responses. (1) In general. A party who has made a disclosure under subsection (b)(6), or who has responded to an interrogatory, request for production or request for admission, must supplement or correct its disclosure or response:

          (A) In a timely manner if the party learns that in some material respect the disclosure or response is incomplete or incorrect, and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the discovery process or in writing; or

          (B) as ordered by the court.

          (2) Expert witness. For an expert to whom the disclosure requirement in subsection (b)(6) applies, the party’s duty to supplement extends both to information included in the disclosure and to information given during the expert’s deposition. Any additions or changes to this information must be disclosed at least 30 days before trial, unless the court orders otherwise.

          (f) Signing disclosures and discovery requests, responses and objections. (1) Signature required; effect of signature. Every disclosure under subsection (b)(6) and every discovery request, response or objection must be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney’s own name, or by the party personally, if unrepresented, and must state the signor’s address, e-mail address and telephone number. By signing, an attorney or party certifies that to the best of the person’s knowledge, information and belief formed after a reasonable inquiry:

          (A) With respect to a disclosure, it is complete and correct as of the time it is made;

          (B) with respect to a discovery request, response or objection, it is:

          (i) Consistent with the rules of civil procedure and warranted by existing law or by a nonfrivolous argument for extending, modifying or reversing existing law or for establishing new law;

          (ii) not interposed for any improper purpose, such as to harass, cause unnecessary delay or needlessly increase the cost of litigation; and

          (iii) neither unreasonable nor unduly burdensome or expensive considering the needs of the case, prior discovery in the case, the amount in controversy and the importance of the issues at stake in the action.

          (2) Failure to sign. Other parties have no duty to act on an unsigned disclosure, request, response or objection until it is signed, and the court must strike it unless a signature is promptly supplied after the omission is called to the attorney’s or party’s attention.

          (3) Sanction for improper certification. If a certification violates this section without substantial justification, the court, on motion, or on its own, must impose an appropriate sanction on the signer, the party on whose behalf the signer was acting, or both. The sanction may include an order to pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney’s fees, caused by the violation.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-226; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 20, 1972; L. 1986, ch. 215, § 6; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 11; L. 2008, ch. 21, § 2; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 95; L. 2011, ch. 48, § 8; L. 2012, ch. 35, § 2; L. 2017, ch. 75, § 4; July 1.

60-228a. Uniform interstate depositions and discovery act.

          (a) Citation of section. This section may be cited as the uniform interstate depositions and discovery act.

          (b) Definitions. In this section:

          (1) "Foreign jurisdiction" means a state other than this state or a foreign country.

          (2) "Foreign subpoena" means a subpoena issued under authority of a court of record of a foreign jurisdiction.

          (3) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or political subdivision, agency or instrumentality or any other legal or commercial entity.

          (4) "State" means a state of the United States, the district of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin islands, a federally recognized Indian tribe or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

          (5) "Subpoena" means a document, however denominated, issued under authority of a court of record requiring a person to:

          (A) Attend and give testimony at a deposition;

          (B) produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, documents, records, electronically stored information or tangible things in the possession, custody or control of the person; or

          (C) permit inspection of premises under the control of the person.

          (c) Issuance of subpoena. (1) To request issuance of a subpoena under this section, a party must submit a foreign subpoena to a clerk of court in the county in which discovery is sought to be conducted in this state and pay the docket fee as required by K.S.A. 60-2001, and amendments thereto. A request for the issuance of a subpoena in this state under this act does not constitute an appearance in the courts of this state.

          (2) When a party submits a foreign subpoena to a clerk of court in this state, the clerk, in accordance with that court's procedure, must:

          (A) Promptly issue a subpoena for service on the person to which the foreign subpoena is directed; and


          (B) assign the subpoena a case file number and enter it on the docket as a civil action pursuant to K.S.A. 60-2601, and amendments thereto.

          (3) A subpoena under subsection (c)(2) must:

          (A) Incorporate the terms used in the foreign subpoena; and

          (B) contain or be accompanied by the names, addresses and telephone numbers of all counsel of record in the proceeding to which the subpoena relates and of any party not represented by counsel.

          (d) Service of subpoena. A subpoena issued by a clerk of court under subsection (c) must be served in compliance with K.S.A. 60-303, and amendments thereto.

          (e) Deposition, production and inspection. K.S.A. 60-245, and amendments thereto, applies to subpoenas issued under subsection (c).

          (f) Application to court. An application to the court for a protective order or to enforce, quash or modify a subpoena issued by a clerk of court under subsection (c) must comply with the statutes of this state and be submitted to the court in the county in which discovery is to be conducted.

          (g) Uniformity of application and construction. In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.

          (h) Application to pending action. This section applies to requests for discovery in cases pending on the effective date of this section.

History: L. 2010, ch. 135, § 1; L. 2011, ch. 48, § 9; July 1.

60-245. Subpoenas.

          (a) Form; issuance. (1) Every subpoena shall:

          (A) State the name of the court from which it is issued;

          (B) state the title of the action, the name of the court in which it is pending and the file number of the action;

          (C) command each person to whom it is directed to attend and give testimony or to produce and permit inspection, copying, testing or sampling of designated books, documents, electronically stored information or tangible things in the possession, custody or control of that person, or to permit inspection of premises, at a time and place specified in the subpoena; and

          (D) set forth the text of subsections (c) and (d) of this section.

          A command to produce evidence or to permit inspection, copying, testing or sampling may be joined with a command to appear at trial or hearing or at deposition, or may be issued separately. A subpoena may specify the form in which electronically stored information is to be produced. Subpoena and production of records of a business which is not a party shall be in accordance with K.S.A. 60-245a, and amendments thereto.

          (2) A subpoena commanding attendance at a trial or hearing shall issue from the district court in which the hearing or trial is to be held. A subpoena for attendance at a deposition shall issue from the district court in which the action is pending or the officer before whom the deposition is to be taken or, if the deposition is to be taken outside the state, from an officer authorized by the law of the other state to issue the subpoena. If separate from a subpoena commanding the attendance of a person, a subpoena for production, inspection, copying, testing or sampling shall issue from the district court in which the action is pending or, if the production, inspection, copying, testing or sampling is to be made outside the state, an officer authorized by the law of the other state to issue the subpoena.

          (3) Every subpoena issued by the court shall be issued by the clerk under the seal of the court or by a judge. Upon request of a party, the clerk shall issue a blank subpoena. The blank subpoena shall bear the seal of the court, the title and file number of the action and the clerk's signature or a facsimile of the clerk's signature. The party to whom a blank subpoena is issued shall fill it in before service.

          (b) Service. Service of a subpoena upon a person named therein may be made anywhere within the state, shall be made in accordance with K.S.A. 60-303, and amendments thereto, and shall, if the person's attendance is commanded, be accompanied by the fees for one day's attendance and the mileage allowed by law. When sought independently of a deposition, prior notice of any commanded production, inspection, copying, testing or sampling of documents or inspection of premises before trial shall be served on each party in the manner prescribed by subsection (b) of K.S.A. 60-205, and amendments thereto.

          (c) Protection of persons subject to subpoenas.

          (1) A party or an attorney responsible for the issuance and service of a subpoena shall take reasonable steps to avoid imposing undue burden or expense on a person subject to that subpoena. The court on behalf of which the subpoena was issued shall enforce this duty and impose upon the party or attorney in breach of this duty an appropriate sanction, which may include, but is not limited to, a reasonable attorney fee.

          (2) (A) A person commanded to produce and permit inspection, copying, testing or sampling of designated electronically stored information, books, papers, documents or tangible things or inspection of premises need not appear in person at the place of production or inspection unless commanded to appear for deposition, hearing or trial.

          (B) Subject to subsection (d)(2), a person commanded to produce and permit inspection, copying, testing or sampling may, within 14 days after service of the subpoena or before the time specified for compliance if such time is less than 14 days after service, serve upon the party or attorney designated in the subpoena written objection to producing any or all of the designated materials or inspection of the premises or to producing electronically stored information in the form or forms requested. If objection is made, the party serving the subpoena shall not be entitled to inspect, copy, test or sample the materials or inspect the premises except pursuant to an order of the court by which the subpoena was issued. If objection has been made, the party serving the subpoena may, upon notice to the person commanded to produce, move at any time for an order to compel the production, inspection, copying, testing or sampling. Such an order to compel shall protect any person who is not a party or an officer of a party from significant expense resulting from the inspection, copying, testing or sampling commanded.

          (3) (A) On timely motion, the court by which a subpoena was issued shall quash or modify the subpoena if it:

          (i) Fails to allow reasonable time for compliance;

          (ii) requires a resident of this state who is not a party or an officer of a party to travel to a place more than 100 miles from the place where that person resides, is employed or regularly transacts business in person or requires a nonresident who is not a party or an officer of a party to travel to a place more than 100 miles from the place where the nonresident was served with the subpoena, is employed or regularly transacts business, except that, subject to the provisions of subsection (c)(3)(B)(iii), such a nonparty may in order to attend trial be commanded to travel to the place of trial;

          (iii) requires disclosure of privileged or other protected matter and no exception or waiver applies; or

          (iv) subjects a person to undue burden.

          (B) If a subpoena:

          (i) Requires disclosure of a trade secret or other confidential research, development or commercial information; or

          (ii) requires disclosure of an unretained expert's opinion or information not describing specific events or occurrences in dispute and resulting from the expert's study made not at the request of any party; or

          (iii) requires a person who is not a party or an officer of a party to incur substantial expense to travel more than 100 miles to attend trial, the court may, to protect a person subject to or affected by the subpoena, quash or modify the subpoena or, if the party in whose behalf the subpoena is issued shows a substantial need for the testimony or material that cannot be otherwise met without undue hardship and assures that the person to whom the subpoena is addressed will be reasonably compensated, the court may order appearance or production only upon specified conditions.

          (4) A person confined in prison may be required to appear for examination by deposition only in the county where the person is imprisoned.

          (d) Duties in responding to subpoena. (1) (A) A person responding to a subpoena to produce documents shall produce them as they are kept in the usual course of business or shall organize and label them to correspond with the categories in the demand.

          (B) If a subpoena does not specify the form or forms for producing electronically stored information, a person responding to a subpoena must produce the information in a form or forms in which the person ordinarily maintains it or in a form or forms that are reasonable usable.

          (C) A person responding to a subpoena need not produce the same electronically stored information in more than one form.

          (D) A person responding to a subpoena need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the person identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. On motion to compel discovery or to quash, the person from whom discovery is sought must show that the information sought is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause, considering the limitations of subsection (b)(2)(A) of K.S.A. 60-226, and amendments thereto. The court may specify conditions for the discovery.

          (2) (A) When information subject to a subpoena is withheld on a claim that such information is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation materials, the claim shall be made expressly and shall be supported by a description of the nature of the documents, communications or things not produced that is sufficient to enable the demanding party to contest the claim.

          (B) If information is produced in response to a subpoena that is subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as trial-preparation material, the person making the claim may notify any party that received the information of the claim and the basis for it. After being notified, a party must promptly return, sequester or destroy the specified information and any copies it has and may not use or disclose the information until the claim is resolved. A receiving party may promptly present the information to the court under seal for a determination of the claim. If the receiving party disclosed the information before being notified, it must take reasonable steps to retrieve it. The person who produced the information must preserve the information until the claim is resolved.

          (e) Contempt. Failure by any person without adequate excuse to obey a subpoena served upon the person may be considered a contempt of the court in which the action is pending or the court of the county in which the deposition is to be taken. Punishment for contempt shall be in accordance with K.S.A. 20-1204, and amendments thereto. An adequate cause for failure to obey exists when a subpoena purports to require a nonparty to attend or produce at a place not within the limits provided by subsection (c)(3)(A)(iii).

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-245; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 20, 1972; amended by Supreme Court order dated July 28, 1976; L. 1982, ch. 243, § 1; L. 1985, ch. 196, § 2; L. 1990, ch. 202, § 2; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 24; L. 2008, ch. 21, § 6; July 1.

60-245a. Subpoena of records of a business not a party.

          (a) Definitions. As used in this section:

          (1) "Business" means any kind of business, profession, occupation, calling or operation of institutions, whether carried on for profit or not.

          (2) "Business records" means writings or electronically stored information made by personnel or staff of a business, or persons acting under their control, which are memoranda or records of acts, conditions or events made in the regular course of business at or about the time of the act, condition or event recorded.

          (b) Subpoena for business records only. Any party may request production of business records from a nonparty by causing to be issued a nonparty business records subpoena pursuant to this section. The subpoena must inform the person to whom it is directed that the person may serve on the party or attorney designated in the subpoena written objection to production of any or all of the business records designated in the subpoena within the earlier of the time specified for compliance or 14 days after the subpoena is served. If such an objection is made, the business records need not be produced unless ordered by the court on motion, with notice to the person to whom the subpoena was directed.

          (1) Duties of requesting party. (A) Must give notice of intent. Not less than 14 days before issuance of a nonparty business records subpoena, the requesting party must give notice to all parties of the intent to request the subpoena. A copy of the proposed subpoena must be served on all parties with the notice. If prior to the issuance of the subpoena any party objects to the production of the records sought, the subpoena must not be issued unless ordered by the court.

          (B) Requesting party to provide declaration form. When the subpoena is issued, it must be accompanied by a form of declaration that complies with paragraph (3), to be completed by the records custodian.

          (C) Canceling deposition. If receipt of the records makes the taking of a deposition unnecessary, the requesting party must cancel the deposition and give written notice to the parties of the receipt of the records and the cancellation of the deposition.

          (2) Appearance not required; producing records; time to respond. Unless the personal attendance of a custodian of the business records or the production of original business records is required under subsection (c), it is sufficient compliance with a nonparty business records subpoena if, within the earlier of the time specified for compliance or 14 days after receipt of the subpoena, a custodian of the business records delivers to the party or attorney requesting them, by mail or otherwise, a true and correct copy of all records described in the subpoena and a completed copy of a declaration or an affidavit that complies with paragraph (3) accompanying the records. The custodian must file the declaration or affidavit with the court. If return of the records is desired, the words "return requested" must be inscribed clearly on the envelope or wrapper.

          (3) Declaration or affidavit of a custodian of the records. (A) Contents of declaration or affidavit accompanying documents produced. The records described in the subpoena must be accompanied by a declaration pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, or an affidavit, of a custodian of the records, or, when a declarant or affiant lacks knowledge

of all the required facts, more than one declaration or affidavit may be made, stating in substance each of the following:

          (i) The declarant or affiant is an authorized custodian of the records and has authority to certify records;

          (ii) the copy is a true copy of all the records described in the subpoena that are in the business’ possession, custody or control and whether it is all or part of the requested records; and

          (iii) the records were prepared by the personnel or staff of the business, or persons acting under their control, in the regular course of the business at or about the time of the act, condition or event recorded.

          (B) When none of the requested records is produced. If the business has none of the records described in the subpoena, a custodian of the records of the business must submit a declaration pursuant to K.S.A. 53- 601, and amendments thereto, or an affidavit, stating that fact.

          (4) Costs for copying the records. The person to whom the subpoena is directed may demand the reasonable costs of copying the records. If the costs are demanded, the records need not be produced until the costs are advanced.

          (5) Inspecting the record. After the copy of the records is delivered, a party desiring to inspect or copy them must give reasonable notice to the parties. If inspection is requested, the notice must state the time and place of inspection. If copies are requested, the reasonable costs of copying the records may be demanded of the requesting party. If the costs are demanded, the copies need not be provided until the costs are advanced.

          (6) Disposal or return of records. Thirty days after termination of the case, records that are not introduced in evidence or required as part of the record may be destroyed, or returned to the records custodian who submitted them if return was requested, after giving notice to the parties.

          (c) Subpoena duces tecum for attendance of a custodian and original business records; objections. Any party may require the personal attendance of a business records custodian or the production of original business records in an action in which the business is not a party by causing a subpoena duces tecum to be issued pursuant to K.S.A. 60-245, and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1985, ch. 196, § 1; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 25; L. 2000, ch. 145, § 1; L. 2004, ch. 176, § 1; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 115, July 1.

60-256. Summary judgment; filing fee.

          (a) By a claiming party. A party claiming relief may move, with or without supporting affidavits or supporting declarations pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, for summary judgment on all or part of the claim.

          (b) By a defending party. A party against whom relief is sought may move, with or without supporting affidavits or supporting declarations pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, for summary judgment on all or part of the claim.

          (c) Time for a motion; response and reply; proceedings. (1) These times apply unless a different time is set by local rule or the court orders otherwise:

          (A) A party may move for summary judgment at any time until 30 days after the close of all discovery;

          (B) a party opposing the motion must file a response within 21 days after the motion is served or a responsive pleading is due, whichever is later; and

          (C) the movant may file a reply within 14 days after the response is served.

          (2) The judgment sought should be rendered if the pleadings, the discovery and disclosure materials on file, and any affidavits or declarations show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law.

          (d) Case not fully adjudicated on the motion. (1) Establishing facts. If summary judgment is not rendered on the whole action, the court should, to the extent practicable, determine what material facts are not genuinely at issue. The court should so determine by examining the pleadings and evidence before it and by interrogating the attorneys. It should then issue an order specifying what facts, including items of damages or other relief, are not genuinely at issue. The facts so specified must be treated as established in the action.

          (2) Establishing liability. An interlocutory summary judgment may be rendered on liability alone, even if there is a genuine issue on the amount of damages.

          (e) Affidavits or declarations; further testimony. (1) In general. A supporting or opposing affidavit or declaration must be made on personal knowledge, set out facts that would be admissible in evidence and show that the affiant or declarant is competent to testify on the matters stated. If a paper or part of a paper is referred to in an affidavit or declaration, a sworn or certified copy must be attached to or served with the affidavit or declaration. The court may permit an affidavit or declaration to be supplemented or opposed by depositions, answers to interrogatories or additional affidavits or declarations.

          (2) Opposing party’s obligation to respond. When a motion for summary judgment is properly made and supported, an opposing party may not rely merely on allegations or denials in its own pleading; rather, its response must, by affidavits or by declarations pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, or as otherwise provided in this section, set out specific facts showing a genuine issue for trial. If the opposing party does not so respond, summary judgment should, if appropriate, be entered against that party.

          (f) When affidavits or declarations are unavailable. If a party opposing the motion shows by affidavit or by declaration pursuant to K.S.A. 53-601, and amendments thereto, that, for specified reasons, it cannot present facts essential to justify its opposition, the court may:

          (1) Deny the motion;

          (2) order a continuance to enable affidavits or declarations to be obtained, depositions to be taken or other discovery to be undertaken; or

          (3) issue any other just order.

          (g) Affidavits or declarations submitted in bad faith. If satisfied that an affidavit or declaration under this section is submitted in bad faith or solely for delay, the court must order the submitting party or attorney to pay the other party the reasonable expenses, including attorney’s fees, it incurred as a result. An offending party or attorney may be held in contempt.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-256; L. 1986, ch. 215, § 11; L. 1987, ch. 218, § 5; L. 1997, ch. 173, § 29; L. 2007, ch. 190, § 18; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 129; L. 2014, ch. 82, § 34; L. 2015, ch. 81, § 22; July 1.

60-272. Consulting with jurors.

          (a) On completion of a jury trial in a civil action and before the jury is discharged, the judge shall inform the jurors that they have an absolute right to discuss or not to discuss the deliberations or verdict with anyone except as provided in subsections (f) and (g). The judge shall also inform the jurors of the provisions set forth in subsections (b), (c), (d) and (e).

          (b) Immediately following the discharge of the jury in a civil action, the defendant, or the defendant’s attorney or representative, or the plaintiff, or the plaintiff’s attorney or representative, may discuss the jury deliberations or verdict with a member of the jury only if the juror consents to the discussion.

          (c) If a discussion of the jury deliberations or verdict with a member of the jury occurs at any time other than immediately following the discharge of the jury, prior to discussing the jury deliberations or verdict with a member of a jury, the defendant, or the defendant’s attorney or representative, or the plaintiff, or the plaintiff’s attorney or representative, shall inform the juror of the identity of the case, the party in the case that the person represents, the subject of the interview, the absolute right of the juror to discuss or not discuss the deliberations or verdict in the case with the person and the juror’s right to review and have a copy of any declaration filed with the court.

          (d) Any unreasonable contact with a juror by the defendant, or the defendant’s attorney or representative, or by the plaintiff, or the plaintiff’s attorney or representative, without the juror’s consent shall be immediately reported to the trial court.

          (e) Any violation of this section shall be considered a violation of a lawful court order and may be punished as contempt of court.

          (f) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a law enforcement officer from discussing the deliberations or verdict with a member of the jury for the purpose of investigating an allegation of criminal conduct.

          (g) Nothing in this section shall prohibit the court or a judge from discussing the deliberations or verdict with a member of the jury for any lawful purpose.

          (h) This section shall be part of and supplemental to the code of civil procedure.

History: L. 2018, ch. 108, § 5; July 1.